how-to-modify-nodes-in-an-abstract-syntax-tree

One of the more powerful concepts I’ve stumbled across recently is the idea of abstract syntax trees, or ASTs. If you’ve ever studied alchemy, you may recall that the whole motivation for alchemists was to discover some way to transform not-gold into gold through scientific or arcane methods.

ASTs are kind of like that. Using ASTs, we can transform Markdown into HTML, JSX into JavaScript, and so much more.

Why are ASTs useful?

Early in my career, I tried to change files using a find-and-replace method. This ended up being fairly complicated, so I tried using regular expressions. I ended up abandoning the idea because it was so brittle; the app broke all the time because someone would enter text in a way I hadn’t anticipated and it would break my regular expressions causing the whole app to fall down.

The reason this was so hard is that HTML is flexible. That makes it extremely hard to parse using regular expressions. String-based replacement like this is prone to breaking because it might miss a match, match too much, or do something weird that results in invalid markup that leaves the page looking janky.

ASTs, on the other hand, turn HTML into something far more structured, which makes it much simpler to dive into a text node and do replacements on only that text, or to mess with elements without needing to deal with the text at all.

This makes AST transformation safer and less error-prone than a purely string-based solution.

What are ASTs used for?

To start, let’s take a look at a minimal document using a couple lines of Markdown. This will be saved as a file called home.md, which we’ll save in the content folder of our website.

# Hello World!

![cardigan corgi]() An adorable corgi!

Some more text goes here.

Assuming we know Markdown, we can infer that when this Markdown is parsed, it’ll end up being an

that says, “Hello World!” and a

that says, “This is some Markdown.”

But how does it get transformed from Markdown to HTML?

That’s where ASTs come in!

Because it supports multiple languages, we’re going to use the unist syntax tree specification and, more specifically, the project unified.

Install the dependencies

First, we need to install the dependencies required to parse the Markdown into an AST and convert it to HTML. To do that, we need to make sure we’ve initialized the folder as a package. Run the following command in your terminal:

# make sure you’re in your root folder (where `content` is)
# initialize this folder as an npm package
npm init

# install the dependencies
npm install unified remark-parse remark-html

If we assume our Markdown is stored in home.md, we can get the AST with the following code:

const fs = require('fs');
const unified = require('unified');
const markdown = require('remark-parse');
const html = require('remark-html');

const contents = unified()
  .use(markdown)
  .use(html)
  .processSync(fs.readFileSync(`${process.cwd()}/content/home.md`))
  .toString();

console.log(contents);

This code takes advantage of Node’s built-in fs module, which allows us to access and manipulate the filesystem. For more information on how this works, check out the official docs.

If we save this as src/index.js and use Node to execute this script from the command line, we’ll see the following in our terminal:

$ node src/index.js 

Hello World!

cardigan corgi An adorable corgi!

Some more text goes here.

We tell unified to use remark-parse to turn the Markdown file into an AST, then to use remark-html to turn the Markdown AST into a HTML — or, more specifically, it turns it into something called a VFile. Using the toString() method turns that AST into an actual string of HTML we can display in the browser!

Thanks to the hard work of the open-source community, remark does all the hard work of turning Markdown into HTML for us. (See the diff)

Next, let’s look at how this actually works.

What does an AST look like?

To see the actual AST, let’s write a tiny plugin to log it:

const fs = require('fs');
const unified = require('unified');
const markdown = require('remark-parse');
const html = require('remark-html');

const contents = unified()
	.use(markdown)
  .use(() => tree => console.log(JSON.stringify(tree, null, 2)))
	.use(html)
	.processSync(fs.readFileSync(`${process.cwd()}/content/home.md`))
	.toString();

The output of running the script will now be:

{
  "type": "root",
  "children": [
    {
      "type": "heading",
      "depth": 1,
      "children": [
        {
          "type": "text",
          "value": "Hello World!",
          "position": {}
        }
      ],
      "position": {}
    },
    {
      "type": "paragraph",
      "children": [
        {
          "type": "image",
          "title": null,
          "url": "",
          "alt": "cardigan corgi",
          "position": {}
        },
        {
          "type": "text",
          "value": " An adorable corgi!",
          "position": {}
        }
      ],
      "position": {}
    },
    {
      "type": "paragraph",
      "children": [
        {
          "type": "text",
          "value": "Some more text goes here.",
          "position": {}
        }
      ],
      "position": {}
    }
  ],
  "position": {}
}

Note that the position values have been truncated to save space. They contain information about where the node is in the document. For the purposes of this tutorial, we won’t be using this information. (See the diff)

This is a little overwhelming to look at, but if we zoom in we can see that each part of the Markdown becomes a type of node with a text node inside it.

For example, the heading becomes:

{
  "type": "heading",
  "depth": 1,
  "children": [
    {
      "type": "text",
      "value": "Hello World!",
      "position": {}
    }
  ],
  "position": {}
}

Here’s what this means:

  • The type tells us what kind of node we’re dealing with.
  • Each node type has additional properties that describe the node. The depth property on the heading tells us what level heading it is — a depth of 1 means it’s an

    tag, 2 means

    , and so on.

  • The children array tells us what’s inside this node. In both the heading and the paragraph, there’s only text, but we could also see inline elements here, like .

This is the power of ASTs: We’ve now described the Markdown document as an object that a computer can understand. If we want to print this back to Markdown, a Markdown compiler would know that a “heading” node with a depth of 1 starts with #, and a child text node with the value “Hello” means the final line should be # Hello.

How AST transformations work

Transforming an AST is usually done using the visitor pattern. It‘s not important to know the ins and outs of how this works to be productive, but if you’re curious, JavaScript Design Patterns for Humans by Soham Kamani has a great example to help explain how it works. The important thing to know is that the majority of resources on AST work will talk about “visiting nodes,” which roughly translates to “find part of the AST so we can do stuff with it.” The way this works practice is that we write a function that will be applied to AST nodes matching our criteria.

A few important notes about how it works:

  • ASTs can be huge, so for performance reasons we will mutate nodes directly. This runs counter to how I would usually approach things — as a general rule I don’t like to mutate global state — but it makes sense in this context.
  • Visitors work recursively. That means that if we process a node and create a new node of the same type, the visitor will run on the newly created node as well unless we explicitly tell the visitor not to.
  • We’re not going to go too deep in this tutorial, but these two ideas will help us understand what’s going on as we start to mess with the code.

How do I modify the HTML output of the AST?

What if we want to change the output of our Markdown, though? Let’s say our goal is to wrap image tags with a figure element and supply a caption, like this:

cardigan corgi
An adorable corgi!

To accomplish this, we’ll need transform the HTML AST — not the Markdown AST — because Markdown doesn’t have a way of creating figure or figcaption elements. Fortunately, because unified is interoperable with multiple parsers, we can do that without writing a bunch of custom code.

Convert a Markdown AST to an HTML AST

To convert the Markdown AST to an HTML AST, add remark-rehype and switch to rehype-stringify for turning the AST back to HTML.

npm install remark-rehype rehype-stringify

Make the following changes in src/index.js to switch over to rehype:

const fs = require('fs');
const unified = require('unified');
const markdown = require('remark-parse');
const remark2rehype = require('remark-rehype');
const html = require('rehype-stringify');

const contents = unified()
	.use(markdown)
  .use(remark2rehype)
	.use(() => tree => console.log(JSON.stringify(tree, null, 2)))
	.use(html)
	.processSync(fs.readFileSync('corgi.md'))
	.toString();

console.log(contents);

Note that the HTML variable changed from remark-html to rehype-stringify — both turn the AST into a format that can be stringified to HTML

If we run the script, we can see the image element now looks like this in the AST:

{
  "type": "element",
  "tagName": "img",
  "properties": {
    "src": "https://images.dog.ceo/breeds/corgi-cardigan/n02113186_1030.jpg",
    "alt": "cardigan corgi"
  },
  "children": [],
  "position": {}
}

This is the AST for the HTML representation of the image, so we can start changing it over to use the figure element. (See the diff)

Write a plugin for unified

To wrap our img element with a figure element, we need to write a plugin. In unified, plugins are added with the use() method, which accepts the plugin as a first argument and any options as a second argument:

.use(plugin, options)

The plugin code is a function (called an “attacher” in unified jargon) that receives option. These options are used to create a new function (called a “transformer”) that receives the AST and does work to, er, transform it. For more details on plugins, check out the plugin overview in the unified docs.

The function it returns will receive the entire AST as its argument, and it doesn’t return anything. (Remember, ASTs are mutated globally.) Create a new file called img-to-figure.js in the same folder as index.js, then put the following inside:

module.exports = options => tree => {
  console.log(tree);
};

To use this, we need to add it to src/index.js:

const fs = require('fs');
const unified = require('unified');
const markdown = require('remark-parse');
const remark2rehype = require('remark-rehype');
const html = require('rehype-stringify');
const imgToFigure = require('./img-to-figure');

const contents = unified()
  .use(markdown)
  .use(remark2rehype)
  .use(imgToFigure)
  .processSync(fs.readFileSync('corgi.md'))
  .toString();

console.log(contents);

If we run the script, we’ll see the whole tree logged out in the console:

{
  type: 'root',
  children: [
    {
      type: 'element',
      tagName: 'p',
      properties: {},
      children: [Array],
      position: [Object]
    },
    { type: 'text', value: '\n' },
    {
      type: 'element',
      tagName: 'p',
      properties: {},
      children: [Array],
      position: [Object]
    }
  ],
  position: {
    start: { line: 1, column: 1, offset: 0 },
    end: { line: 4, column: 1, offset: 129 }
  }
}

(See the diff)

Add a visitor to the plugin

Next, we need to add a visitor. This will let us actually get at the code. Unified takes advantage of a number of utility packages, all prefixed with unist-util-*, that allow us to do common things with our AST without writing custom code.

We can use unist-util-visit to modify nodes. This gives us a visit helper that takes three arguments:

  • The entire AST we’re working with
  • A predicate function to identify which nodes we want to visit
  • A function to make any changes to the AST we want to make

To install, run the following in your command line:

npm install unist-util-visit

Let’s implement a visitor in our plugin by adding the following code:

const visit = require('unist-util-visit');

  module.exports = options => tree => {
    visit(
      tree,
      // only visit p tags that contain an img element
      node =>
        node.tagName === 'p' && node.children.some(n => n.tagName === 'img'),
      node => {
        console.log(node);
      }
    );
};

When we run this, we can see there’s only one paragraph node logged:

{
  type: 'element',
  tagName: 'p',
  properties: {},
  children: [
    {
      type: 'element',
      tagName: 'img',
      properties: [Object],
      children: [],
      position: [Object]
    },
    { type: 'text', value: ' An adorable corgi!', position: [Object] }
  ],
  position: {
    start: { line: 3, column: 1, offset: 16 },
    end: { line: 3, column: 102, offset: 117 }
  }
}

Perfect! We’re getting only the paragraph node that has the image we want to modify. Now we can start to transform the AST!

(See the diff)

Wrap the image in a figure element

Now that we have the image attributes, we can start to change the AST. Remember, because ASTs can be really large, we mutate them in place to avoid creating lots of copies and potentially slowing our script down.

We start by changing the node’s tagName to be a figure instead of a paragraph. The rest of the details can stay the same for now.

Make the following changes in src/img-to-figure.js:

const visit = require('unist-util-visit');

module.exports = options => tree => {
  visit(
    tree,
    // only visit p tags that contain an img element
    node =>
    node.tagName === 'p' && node.children.some(n => n.tagName === 'img'),
    node => {
      node.tagName = 'figure';
    }
  );
};

If we run our script again and look at the output, we can see that we’re getting closer!

Hello World!

cardigan corgiAn adorable corgi!

Some more text goes here.

(See the diff)

Use the text next to the image as a caption

To avoid needing to write custom syntax, we’re going to use any text passed inline with an image as the image caption.

We can make an assumption that usually images don’t have inline text in Markdown, but it’s worth noting that this could 100% cause unintended captions to appear for people writing Markdown. We’re going to take that risk in this tutorial. If you’re planning to put this into production, make sure to weigh the trade-offs and choose what’s best for your situation.

To use the text, we’re going to look for a text node inside our parent node. If we find one, we want to grab its value as our caption. If no caption is found, we don’t want to transform this node at all, so we can return early.

Make the following changes to src/img-to-figure.js to grab the caption:

const visit = require('unist-util-visit');

module.exports = options => tree => {
  visit(
    tree,
    // only visit p tags that contain an img element
    node =>
    node.tagName === 'p' && node.children.some(n => n.tagName === 'img'),
    node => {
      // find the text node
      const textNode = node.children.find(n => n.type === 'text');
 
      // if there’s no caption, we don’t need to transform the node
      if (!textNode) return;
 
      const caption = textNode.value.trim();
 
      console.log({ caption });
      node.tagName = 'figure';
    }
  );
};

Run the script and we can see the caption logged:

{ caption: 'An adorable corgi!' }

(See the diff)

Add a figcaption element to the figure

Now that we have our caption text, we can add a figcaption to display it. We could do this by creating a new node and deleting the old text node, but since we’re mutating in place it’s a little less complicated to just change the text node into an element.

Elements don’t have text, though, so we need to add a new text node as a child of the figcaption element to display the caption text.

Make the following changes to src/img-to-figure.js to add the caption to the markup:

const visit = require('unist-util-visit');

module.exports = options => tree => {
  visit(
    tree,
    // only visit p tags that contain an img element
    node =>
      node.tagName === 'p' && node.children.some(n => n.tagName === 'img'),
    node => {
      // find the text node
      const textNode = node.children.find(n => n.type === 'text');

      // if there’s no caption, we don’t need to transform the node
      if (!textNode) return;

      const caption = textNode.value.trim();
      // change the text node to a figcaption element containing a text node
      textNode.type = 'element';
      textNode.tagName = 'figcaption';
      textNode.children = [
        {
          type: 'text',
          value: caption
        }
      ];

      node.tagName = 'figure';
    }
  );
};

If we run the script again with node src/index.js, we see the transformed image wrapped in a figure element and described with a figcaption!

Hello World!

cardigan corgi
An adorable corgi!

Some more text goes here.

(See the diff)

Save the transformed content to a new file

Now that we’ve made a bunch of transformations, we want to save those adjustments to an actual file so we can share them.

Since the Markdown doesn’t include a full HTML document, we’re going to add one more rehype plugin called rehype-document to add the full document structure and a title tag.

Install by running:

npm install rehype-document

Next, make the following changes to src/index.js:

const fs = require('fs');
const unified = require('unified');
const markdown = require('remark-parse');
const remark2rehype = require('remark-rehype');
const doc = require('rehype-document');
const html = require('rehype-stringify');

const imgToFigure = require('./img-to-figure');

const contents = unified()
	.use(markdown)
	.use(remark2rehype)
	.use(imgToFigure)
    .use(doc, { title: 'A Transformed Document!' })
	.use(html)
	.processSync(fs.readFileSync(`${process.cwd()}/content/home.md`))
	.toString();

 const outputDir = `${process.cwd()}/public`;

  if (!fs.existsSync(outputDir)) {
    fs.mkdirSync(outputDir);
  }
 
  fs.writeFileSync(`${outputDir}/home.html`, contents);

Run the script again and we’ll be able to see a new folder in root called public, and inside that we’ll see home.html. Inside, our transformed document is saved!




A Transformed Document!



	

Hello World!

cardigan corgi
An adorable corgi!

Some more text goes here.

(See the diff)

If we open public/home.html in a browser, we can see our transformed Markdown rendered as a figure with a caption.

Holy buckets! Look at that adorable corgi! And we know it’s adorable because the caption tells us so.

What to do next

Transforming files using ASTs is extremely powerful — with it, we’re able to create pretty much anything we can imagine in a safe way. No regexes or string parsing required!

From here, you can dig deeper into the ecosystem of plugins for remark and rehype to see more of what’s possible and get more ideas for what you can do with AST transformation, from building your own Markdown-powered static site generator; to automating performance improvements by modifying code in-place; to whatever you can imagine!

AST transformation is a coding superpower. Get started by checking out this demo’s source code — I can’t wait to see what you build with it! Share your projects with me on Twitter.

265 comments

  1. Greetings! Very useful advice within this article! It is the little changes which will make the
    greatest changes. Thanks a lot for sharing!

  2. I have been exploring for a little for any high quality articles or blog
    posts in this sort of space . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this web site.
    Reading this info So i am satisfied to convey that
    I have a very excellent uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I
    needed. I most indubitably will make sure to don?t put out of your mind this web site and provides it a glance
    regularly.

  3. Hello, i believe that i saw you visited my website thus i got here to go back the prefer?.I’m attempting to find things to enhance my web site!I guess its
    good enough to use some of your ideas!!

  4. Everything is very open with a precise clarification of the challenges.

    It was definitely informative. Your website
    is extremely helpful. Thank you for sharing!

  5. Hi there! Would you mind if I share your blog with my facebook group?
    There’s a lot of people that I think would really appreciate your content.
    Please let me know. Many thanks

  6. I’m really impressed with your writing skills
    as well as with the layout on your blog. Is this
    a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Either way keep up
    the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a
    great blog like this one these days.

  7. Your style is so unique compared to other folks I have read stuff from.
    Thank you for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess
    I will just bookmark this blog.

  8. I want to to thank you for this fantastic read!! I certainly loved every bit of it.
    I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post…

  9. magnificent issues altogether, you just won a new reader.
    What might you suggest about your put up that you simply made a few days ago?
    Any certain?

  10. I’m curious to find out what blog platform you are utilizing?
    I’m experiencing some small security problems with my latest website and I would
    like to find something more secure. Do you have any solutions?

  11. whoah this weblog is excellent i like studying your posts.
    Stay up the good work! You realize, lots of
    individuals are looking around for this information, you can aid them greatly.

  12. Its such as you read my thoughts! You appear to understand
    so much approximately this, such as you wrote the e book
    in it or something. I believe that you can do with some p.c.
    to drive the message house a bit, but other than that,
    this is excellent blog. An excellent read. I’ll definitely be back.

  13. I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great.
    I do not know who you are but certainly you are going to a famous blogger if you are not already 😉 Cheers!

  14. Thank you for the good writeup. It if truth be told used to
    be a enjoyment account it. Look advanced to far introduced agreeable from you!

    However, how could we be in contact?

  15. This is the right website for anyone who wants to find out about this topic.

    You realize a whole lot its almost tough to argue with you
    (not that I personally will need to…HaHa).
    You certainly put a fresh spin on a topic that’s been discussed for
    many years. Wonderful stuff, just wonderful!

  16. you are really a excellent webmaster. The website loading speed is amazing.
    It seems that you are doing any distinctive trick.

    In addition, The contents are masterpiece. you’ve performed a magnificent
    process on this subject!

  17. Hello! This post could not be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my old
    room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will
    forward this post to him. Fairly certain he will have a good read.
    Thanks for sharing!

  18. Thanks for your marvelous posting! I definitely enjoyed reading it, you happen to be a
    great author.I will be sure to bookmark your blog and will come back later
    in life. I want to encourage you to continue your great posts, have
    a nice morning!

  19. Greetings! I know this is kind of off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this website?
    I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had problems
    with hackers and I’m looking at alternatives for another platform.
    I would be fantastic if you could point me in the direction of
    a good platform.

  20. Heya i’m for the primary time here. I came across this board and I find It truly useful & it helped me out much.

    I hope to present something back and help others like you
    aided me.

  21. Excellent article. Keep writing such kind of information on your blog.
    Im really impressed by your blog.
    Hey there, You have performed a great job. I’ll certainly
    digg it and in my opinion suggest to my friends.
    I am sure they will be benefited from this website.

  22. naturally like your website but you need to take a look
    at the spelling on several of your posts. Several
    of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell
    the reality however I will definitely come again again.

  23. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know
    a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something.

    I think that you can do with a few pics to drive the message home a bit,
    but other than that, this is great blog. An excellent read.
    I’ll definitely be back.

  24. Excellent post. I was checking constantly
    this blog and I am impressed! Very helpful info particularly the
    last part 🙂 I care for such information a lot. I was looking for this certain information for a very long time.
    Thank you and best of luck.

  25. Wow, wonderful weblog structure! How lengthy have you
    been running a blog for? you make running a blog glance easy.
    The whole look of your website is fantastic, as well as
    the content material!

  26. Everyone loves what you guys are up too. Such clever work and
    reporting! Keep up the awesome works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to
    blogroll.

  27. I do not even understand how I finished up right here, however
    I thought this put up was great. I don’t recognise who you are however definitely
    you are going to a famous blogger if you happen to
    aren’t already. Cheers!

  28. Very quickly this website will be famous among all blogging and site-building
    users, due to it’s pleasant content

  29. Hey there! Quick question that’s totally off topic. Do you know how to make your site mobile
    friendly? My weblog looks weird when viewing from my apple iphone.
    I’m trying to find a theme or plugin that might be able to resolve
    this problem. If you have any suggestions, please share. Many thanks!

  30. Hi there just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text in your content seem to
    be running off the screen in Opera. I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something to
    do with web browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know.
    The design and style look great though! Hope you get the issue resolved
    soon. Many thanks

  31. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you
    relied on the video to make your point. You obviously know what youre talking
    about, why throw away your intelligence on just posting videos
    to your blog when you could be giving us something informative to read?

  32. Having read this I believed it was extremely enlightening.
    I appreciate you finding the time and energy to put this article together.
    I once again find myself personally spending a significant amount of time both reading and
    posting comments. But so what, it was still worthwhile!

  33. Excellent post. I was checking constantly this weblog and I am impressed!

    Very helpful info particularly the closing part
    🙂 I maintain such information much. I was looking
    for this particular info for a very lengthy time. Thanks and best of
    luck.

  34. Definitely believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the web the easiest thing to be
    aware of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people
    think about worries that they just don’t know about.
    You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined
    out the whole thing without having side effect , people could take a signal.
    Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  35. Hello there! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you
    if that would be ok. I’m absolutely enjoying your blog and look forward to new updates.

  36. We’re a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community.
    Your site provided us with valuable info to work on. You’ve done an impressive job and our entire community will be grateful to you.

  37. Good post however I was wanting to know if you could write a litte more
    on this topic? I’d be very grateful if you could elaborate a
    little bit more. Kudos!

  38. Hello, i think that i saw you visited my website thus i came to “return the favor”.I am trying to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to
    use a few of your ideas!!

  39. Today, I went to the beachfront with my children. I found a sea shell
    and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She placed the shell to her ear
    and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear.
    She never wants to go back! LoL I know this
    is entirely off topic but I had to tell someone!

  40. Definitely believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the web the easiest thing to be aware of.

    I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people consider worries that
    they plainly do not know about. You managed to hit
    the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side effect ,
    people can take a signal. Will likely be back
    to get more. Thanks

  41. Thanks for the auspicious writeup. It in truth used to be a amusement account it.
    Glance complex to far added agreeable from you! However, how
    could we keep in touch?

  42. I’m not that much of a online reader to be honest but
    your blogs really nice, keep it up! I’ll go ahead and bookmark your site to come back later.
    All the best

  43. I’m impressed, I must say. Rarely do I encounter a blog that’s equally educative and engaging,
    and without a doubt, you have hit the nail on the head.
    The problem is something not enough men and women are speaking intelligently
    about. I am very happy that I came across this during my
    search for something concerning this.

  44. Fantastic goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and
    you’re just too excellent. I really like what you’ve acquired
    here, certainly like what you’re stating and the way in which you say it.
    You make it enjoyable and you still take care
    of to keep it smart. I can not wait to read much more from you.
    This is actually a great web site.

  45. It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d definitely donate to this fantastic
    blog! I guess for now i’ll settle for book-marking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account.

    I look forward to new updates and will talk about this site
    with my Facebook group. Chat soon!

  46. Normally I don’t read post on blogs, but I wish to say that this write-up very forced
    me to try and do it! Your writing taste has been surprised me.

    Thank you, very nice article.

  47. I truly love your site.. Great colors & theme. Did you build this website yourself?
    Please reply back as I’m hoping to create my very own blog and would
    like to know where you got this from or just what the theme is called.
    Many thanks!

  48. I think that everything composed made a great deal of sense.
    However, what about this? suppose you were to write a killer headline?
    I ain’t saying your information isn’t good., however what if you added something that makes people desire more?
    I mean How to Modify Nodes in an Abstract Syntax Tree –
    Pavvy Designs is a little vanilla. You ought to peek
    at Yahoo’s home page and note how they create news titles to get people to click.
    You might try adding a video or a related picture or two to
    grab readers excited about what you’ve got to say.
    In my opinion, it might bring your blog a little bit more interesting.

  49. Hi there, You have done an incredible job. I’ll certainly digg
    it and personally suggest to my friends. I am sure they will be benefited
    from this website.

  50. Just wish to say your article is as amazing. The clearness on your
    publish is simply great and i could assume you’re an expert on this subject.
    Fine along with your permission allow me to seize your RSS feed to stay
    up to date with forthcoming post. Thank you 1,000,000 and please keep up the
    rewarding work.

  51. Hi to every one, as I am in fact keen of reading this webpage’s post to be updated on a regular
    basis. It includes good data.

  52. The other day, while I was at work, my cousin stole my iPad and tested to see if it can survive a forty foot
    drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My apple ipad is
    now broken and she has 83 views. I know this is totally off topic but I
    had to share it with someone!

  53. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.

    I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this.
    Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

  54. What i don’t realize is if truth be told how you are no
    longer actually much more smartly-preferred than you may be right now.
    You are so intelligent. You recognize therefore considerably in terms of this subject,
    produced me individually consider it from a lot
    of various angles. Its like women and men are not interested until it’s one thing to do with Woman gaga!
    Your own stuffs great. At all times maintain it up!

  55. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself
    or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz respond as I’m looking
    to create my own blog and would like to find out where u got
    this from. appreciate it

  56. Hello just wanted to give you a brief heads up and let you know a few of the images aren’t loading
    properly. I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue.
    I’ve tried it in two different internet browsers and both show the same results.

  57. Hi! I’m at work surfing around your blog from my new iphone 3gs!
    Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look forward to all your posts!

    Keep up the fantastic work!

  58. Unquestionably consider that which you said. Your favourite
    reason appeared to be at the net the easiest factor to take into accout of.
    I say to you, I certainly get annoyed at the same time as folks think about worries that they just do not recognise about.
    You managed to hit the nail upon the highest and
    outlined out the entire thing without having side effect , folks can take a signal.
    Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

  59. Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I’m
    inspired! Very helpful info specially the final part 🙂 I handle such information a lot.
    I used to be seeking this particular information for a very lengthy
    time. Thanks and good luck.

  60. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to say that I’ve truly
    enjoyed browsing your blog posts. After all I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again very soon!

  61. May I simply say what a relief to find somebody that really understands what they’re talking about over the internet.

    You definitely know how to bring an issue to light
    and make it important. More and more people should read this and understand this side of your story.
    I can’t believe you’re not more popular since you definitely have the gift.

  62. I just like the valuable info you supply to your articles.
    I will bookmark your weblog and check once more
    here regularly. I’m slightly sure I’ll learn many new
    stuff right here! Best of luck for the next!

  63. I blog quite often and I seriously thank you for your information. This article has truly peaked my
    interest. I’m going to bookmark your blog and keep checking for new information about once
    per week. I subscribed to your RSS feed as well.

  64. Hello there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that
    it is truly informative. I’m gonna watch out for brussels.
    I will be grateful if you continue this in future. Many people will be benefited from your writing.

    Cheers!

  65. Wow, amazing weblog layout! How long have you been blogging for?
    you made running a blog glance easy. The overall
    look of your site is excellent, as well as the content material!

  66. Spot on with this write-up, I honestly feel this site needs much more attention. I’ll probably
    be back again to see more, thanks for the information!

  67. Good way of telling, and fastidious article to obtain facts concerning my presentation subject, which i am going to present in academy.

  68. Greetings from Los angeles! I’m bored at work so I decided to check out your site
    on my iphone during lunch break. I enjoy the knowledge you provide here and can’t
    wait to take a look when I get home. I’m surprised
    at how quick your blog loaded on my phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G ..
    Anyhow, wonderful site!

  69. Wow that was odd. I just wrote an really long comment but after I clicked submit my comment didn’t show up.

    Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Regardless, just
    wanted to say fantastic blog!

  70. I’ve been surfing online more than 4 hours today, yet I never found any interesting
    article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me.
    Personally, if all web owners and bloggers made good content as
    you did, the internet will be much more useful than ever
    before.

  71. Do you mind if I quote a few of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources
    back to your website? My website is in the exact same area of interest as yours and my visitors would genuinely benefit from a lot
    of the information you provide here. Please let me know if
    this alright with you. Appreciate it!

  72. It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d without a doubt donate to this excellent blog!

    I suppose for now i’ll settle for bookmarking and adding
    your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to fresh updates and will share this website with my
    Facebook group. Talk soon!

  73. Great post. I was checking constantly this weblog and I am impressed!
    Very helpful info specially the last part 🙂 I take care of such information much.
    I used to be looking for this certain info for a very long time.
    Thank you and best of luck.

  74. Hi there it’s me, I am also visiting this web site daily, this site is genuinely fastidious and the users are in fact sharing nice thoughts.

  75. I was curious if you ever thought of changing the layout of your blog?
    Its very well written; I love what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the
    way of content so people could connect with it better.

    Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or 2 pictures.
    Maybe you could space it out better?

  76. Appreciating the hard work you put into your blog and in depth information you present.
    It’s nice to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same
    unwanted rehashed information. Wonderful read!
    I’ve saved your site and I’m including your RSS feeds to my Google account.

  77. Wonderful blog! Do you have any helpful hints for aspiring writers?
    I’m planning to start my own website soon but I’m a little lost on everything.
    Would you suggest starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a
    paid option? There are so many options out there that
    I’m completely confused .. Any suggestions? Bless you!

  78. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own weblog and was curious what all
    is required to get setup? I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny?
    I’m not very internet smart so I’m not 100% sure.
    Any recommendations or advice would be greatly appreciated.
    Appreciate it

  79. Howdy! I realize this is sort of off-topic however I had to
    ask. Does managing a well-established blog such
    as yours require a massive amount work? I’m brand new to writing a blog but I do write in my diary
    everyday. I’d like to start a blog so I will be able to share my experience and views online.

    Please let me know if you have any ideas or tips for brand new aspiring bloggers.
    Thankyou!

  80. Magnificent beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend
    your site, how can i subscribe for a blog site? The account aided me a acceptable deal.
    I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided bright clear idea

  81. Terrific work! This is the kind of information that are supposed to
    be shared across the net. Shame on Google for now not positioning this submit higher!
    Come on over and talk over with my website . Thank you =)

  82. My partner and I stumbled over here coming from a
    different web page and thought I may as well check things out.
    I like what I see so now i’m following you. Look forward
    to going over your web page yet again.

  83. Have you ever considered about adding a little bit more than just your articles?
    I mean, what you say is valuable and all. Nevertheless think about if you added some great photos or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”!
    Your content is excellent but with images and videos,
    this website could definitely be one of the greatest in its field.

    Fantastic blog!

  84. Hi it’s me, I am also visiting this website daily, this web page is in fact good and the visitors
    are really sharing good thoughts.

  85. I got this site from my buddy who shared with me about this site and now this time I am browsing this
    website and reading very informative articles
    at this time.

  86. I like what you guys are up too. This type of clever work and coverage!
    Keep up the superb works guys I’ve included you guys to my personal blogroll.

  87. Do you have a spam issue on this blog; I also am a blogger,
    and I was wondering your situation; many of us have developed some nice procedures
    and we are looking to swap strategies with others, be sure to shoot me an e-mail if interested.

  88. Thanks for sharing your info. I really appreciate your efforts
    and I am waiting for your next write ups thank you once again.

  89. Aw, this was a really good post. Spending some time and actual effort to produce a good article… but what can I say… I put things off a
    whole lot and don’t seem to get nearly anything done.

  90. Hi there i am kavin, its my first time to commenting anyplace, when i read this post i thought i could
    also create comment due to this brilliant article.

  91. Hello would you mind letting me know which hosting company you’re working with?
    I’ve loaded your blog in 3 different internet browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot quicker then most.
    Can you recommend a good internet hosting provider at a reasonable
    price? Cheers, I appreciate it!

  92. I am in fact glad to glance at this blog posts
    which contains lots of valuable data, thanks for
    providing such information.

  93. My coder is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP.
    I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses.
    But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on various websites for
    about a year and am worried about switching to another platform.
    I have heard good things about blogengine.net.
    Is there a way I can import all my wordpress posts into it?
    Any help would be really appreciated!

  94. Definitely imagine that that you stated. Your favorite justification appeared to be at the web the simplest factor to bear in mind of.
    I say to you, I definitely get irked whilst other people consider issues that they just do
    not recognise about. You managed to hit the nail upon the highest as neatly as outlined out
    the whole thing with no need side-effects , other folks can take a signal.
    Will probably be back to get more. Thank you

  95. Hiya very cool blog!! Man .. Beautiful .. Wonderful
    .. I will bookmark your website and take the feeds also?
    I’m happy to seek out numerous useful info right here in the submit,
    we want develop extra strategies in this regard, thank you for
    sharing. . . . . .

  96. Hi Dear, are you truly visiting this website regularly, if so afterward
    you will absolutely take pleasant experience.

  97. Hello to every body, it’s my first go to see of this web site; this blog consists of awesome and actually
    fine stuff for visitors.

  98. I’m now not sure the place you are getting your information, but great
    topic. I needs to spend some time finding out much more or understanding more.
    Thank you for wonderful info I was looking for this information for my mission.

  99. Hi there! Someone in my Myspace group shared this website with us
    so I came to give it a look. I’m definitely enjoying the information. I’m book-marking and will be tweeting this to my followers!
    Great blog and wonderful design.

  100. I do accept as true with all of the concepts you
    have presented in your post. They’re really convincing and
    can definitely work. Nonetheless, the posts are very quick for novices.
    May you please extend them a little from next time?
    Thanks for the post.

  101. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I
    have truly enjoyed browsing your blog posts.
    In any case I’ll be subscribing to your rss feed and I
    hope you write again very soon!

  102. Amazing! This blog looks exactly like my old one! It’s on a entirely different subject but it has pretty much the same layout
    and design. Great choice of colors!

  103. Hey! Would you mind if I share your blog with my myspace group?
    There’s a lot of folks that I think would really
    appreciate your content. Please let me know. Thank you

  104. I like the helpful info you provide in your
    articles. I will bookmark your weblog and take a look at once more here frequently.

    I’m rather certain I will be informed lots of new stuff proper here!
    Good luck for the following!

  105. Hello to all, the contents existing at this website are really awesome for people experience, well, keep up the good work fellows.

  106. I every time used to read piece of writing in news papers
    but now as I am a user of web so from now I am using net for articles or reviews, thanks to web.

  107. hey there and thank you for your info – I’ve definitely picked up something new from right here.
    I did however expertise several technical points using
    this site, since I experienced to reload the web site many times previous
    to I could get it to load properly. I had been wondering if your web host is OK?
    Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and can damage your high-quality score if ads and
    marketing with Adwords. Anyway I am adding this RSS to my
    e-mail and could look out for a lot more of your respective intriguing content.
    Ensure that you update this again soon.

  108. Hi there, I wish for to subscribe for this weblog to take most recent updates,
    so where can i do it please help out.

  109. I constantly spent my half an hour to read this webpage’s articles or reviews all the time
    along with a cup of coffee.

  110. I’m really loving the theme/design of your site. Do you ever run into any web browser compatibility
    issues? A number of my blog readers have complained about my website
    not operating correctly in Explorer but looks great in Firefox.

    Do you have any tips to help fix this issue?

  111. Way cool! Some extremely valid points! I appreciate you penning this article and also the rest of the site is also really good.

  112. Simply desire to say your article is as astonishing. The clarity in your post is simply spectacular and i could assume you are an expert
    on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab
    your RSS feed to keep updated with forthcoming post.
    Thanks a million and please keep up the gratifying work.

  113. hello there and thank you for your info – I have definitely picked up something new from right
    here. I did however expertise a few technical points using this web site, as I experienced to reload the website a
    lot of times previous to I could get it to load properly. I had been wondering if your web host is OK?
    Not that I am complaining, but slow loading instances times
    will sometimes affect your placement in google and could
    damage your high-quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords.
    Well I’m adding this RSS to my e-mail and can look out for a lot more of your respective fascinating content.
    Ensure that you update this again very soon.

  114. My brother suggested I might like this blog.
    He was entirely right. This post truly made my day.
    You can not imagine simply how much time I had spent for this info!
    Thanks!

  115. Great weblog right here! Also your site a lot up
    very fast! What host are you the usage of? Can I get your associate hyperlink in your host?

    I desire my website loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  116. you’re really a good webmaster. The site loading velocity is amazing.
    It kind of feels that you’re doing any unique trick.
    Furthermore, The contents are masterpiece.
    you’ve performed a great activity in this subject!

  117. I have been browsing on-line greater than three hours as of late,
    yet I by no means discovered any fascinating article like yours.
    It is lovely value sufficient for me. In my opinion, if all website owners and bloggers made excellent content as you did, the internet can be a lot more useful than ever before.

  118. Hello there! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could locate a captcha plugin for
    my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding one?
    Thanks a lot!

  119. I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great.
    I don’t know who you are but definitely you are going to a famous blogger if you
    aren’t already 😉 Cheers!

  120. Hmm is anyone else encountering problems with the images on this blog loading?
    I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog.

    Any responses would be greatly appreciated.

  121. Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long as
    I provide credit and sources back to your site? My blog site is in the exact
    same niche as yours and my users would definitely benefit from a lot of
    the information you provide here. Please let me
    know if this alright with you. Cheers!

  122. Hello, Neat post. There is an issue with your website
    in web explorer, could check this? IE nonetheless is the marketplace leader and a huge portion of other people will
    leave out your excellent writing due to this problem.

  123. I enjoy, lead to I discovered exactly what I was having a look
    for. You have ended my 4 day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day.
    Bye

  124. Howdy! This pot couldn’t be written any bettеr!
    Going through tһis article reminds me of myy previous roommate!

    He constantly kept рreachinng about this. I am going to send this infprmation tto him.

    Pгettʏ sure һe will have a good read. Thank үyou for sharing!

    Feel free to visit my web page online138 (wiki-square.win)

  125. Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon everyday.

    It will always be interesting to read through articles from other writers and use
    a little something from other web sites.

  126. Just want to say your article is as astonishing. The clarity in your post
    is simply excellent and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject.
    Well with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post.
    Thanks a million and please keep up the enjoyable
    work.

  127. We are a group of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community.
    Your website provided us with valuable info to work on. You have done a formidable
    job and our whole community will be grateful to
    you.

  128. Great work! That is the type of info that should be shared
    around the internet. Disgrace on Google for now not positioning this put up upper!
    Come on over and discuss with my site . Thanks =)

  129. Hurrah, that’s what I was seeking for, what
    a material! existing here at this weblog, thanks admin of this web page.

  130. I know this web page offers quality based articles or
    reviews and other material, is there any other site which offers
    these information in quality?

  131. Grea goods fгom you, man. I’ve understanjd your stuff previous to and you’re just too fantаstic.
    I really likе what you’ve acquired here, really like what yoᥙ’re saying annd thee wway in which you say it.

    You make it entertaining and you still take care oof tօ keep itt
    smart. I cɑn’t wait to read much more from you.
    This is actuually a great website. http://www.dongfamily.name/beam/ValerieueCalvertwn

  132. I’m amazed, I must say. Rarely doo I encounter a blog that’s both equally educative and amusing, and without a doubt,
    yyou have hit the nail oon the head. The proble is something
    too few men and women are speaking intelligently about.
    I’m very happy I found this during my search for something
    relating to this.

    Here is my webpage – great porno HD

  133. Great website you have here but I was curious if you
    knew of any message boards that cover the same topics talked about here?

    I’d really like to be a part of group where I can get opinions from other knowledgeable people
    that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let me know.
    Kudos!

  134. Ӏ ⅾo agree with all of the cⲟncepts yyou have offered on your pߋst.
    They’re rerally convincing and can certainly work. Nonetheless, the
    posts are too short foг newbies. May just yoᥙu please exteend them a bit from subsequent time?
    Thanks for the post.

    Stop by myy blog; Selengkapnya disini

  135. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to
    be really something which I think I would never understand.
    It seems too complicated and extremely broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post, I will try to get the hang of it!

  136. Hey this is somewhat of off topic but I was wondering if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if
    you have to manually code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding know-how
    so I wanted to get guidance from someone with experience.
    Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  137. Undеniably consider that that you stаteԁ.
    Yoսr favouгite reason apⲣeared to bbe at the net thе simplest
    factor to have in mind of. I say to you, I certainly get irked at the sɑmе time as people consiɗer issues that they pⅼainly don’t recognise about.
    You colntrolled to hit the nail upon the highest and defined out
    tthe entirе thing wihout having sidre effect , other people could take a signal.
    Will lіeⅼy be bɑck to get more. Τhanks https://camiworld.info/user/profile/217826

  138. I’m truly enjoying thhe design and layout of your website.

    It’s a very easy оon the eyes which maкes it much more pleasant for me to come here
    and visit more often. Didd you hire out a developer to create your theme?

    Great work!

    My blog – slot deposit pulsa

  139. Ꮋeya! I гealize this iss kind oof off-topic but I
    needed to ask. Does runnіng a well-established
    website like yours require a maѕsive amοunt work?

    I’m completеly new to writing a blog however І do write in my j᧐urnal everyday.
    I’d like to start a blog so I will be ɑble to sharе my personal experience and thoսghts online.

    Please ⅼet me кnow if you have any kind of suggesfions orr tips for neww aspiring bloggers.
    Appreciatе it!

    Here iѕs my website; judi slot рulsa (cnc-modellbautechnik.info)

  140. Howdy just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Opera.

    I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something to do with browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let
    you know. The layout look great though! Hope you get the issue resolved soon. Cheers

  141. Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for
    your blog. You have some really great posts and I feel I would
    be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the
    load off, I’d absolutely love to write some material for your
    blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please send me an email if interested.
    Cheers!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.