Image source: Ford Motor Co.

Remember when Chevrolet showed the zoomy Camaro-inspired Volt concept car that made the EV world lose its mind, only to roll out a disappointingly dull production model saddled with an interior seemingly supplied by RubberMaid?

Ford has gone the opposite direction with its upcoming Mustang Mach-E EV, which started life as what Ford terms a “compliance” car. That is, a palatable EV built to comply with California’s mandatory electric car sales. As such, it was seen as little more than an electrified Focus economy car.

But Ford executives recognized that electric car components still cost more than combustion engine components, and that if customers are going to be asked to pay more, the manufacturer should deliver something more inspirational for the money.

The Mustang Mach-E is Ford’s solution to this challenge, explained Darren Palmer, Ford’s global product development director for battery electric vehicles. Most EVs until now have been tall vehicles, with high prismatic pouch battery packs stowed beneath the floor contributing to the upright layout.

Darren Palmer. Image source: Ford Motor Co.

This is an area where Tesla’s use of AA-like cylindrical 2170 battery cells rather than prismatic cells provides an advantage. Those smaller cells can be packaged beneath the floor without raising it to SUV-like heights. Ford wanted to use prismatic packs, but didn’t want them to be so intrusively tall that they would undermine its plans for a sporty looking Mach-E.

The solution was a partnership with supplier LG Chem to develop new prismatic pouches that are shorter in height but wider, trimming the cells’ height to 5.9 inches (150 mm). These shorter cells are suitable for use in a wider array of vehicles than ones that would only fit in tall vehicles, boosting their potential for high volume, Palmer said.

“Should one car be more popular than the others we can switch between them,” he pointed out. This flexibility increases the likelihood that Ford EVs will find customers in one vehicle segment, if not another.

“That gives confidence to our suppliers,” said Palmer. “When they are nervous, they give us prices that are not good.”

Ford and LG Chem negotiated a deal for battery prices that are so aggressive that Ford raised its sales forecasts for the Mach-E. That put different pressure on LG Chem, which now had to worry about making enough cells rather than being stuck with inventory. Nevertheless, “we convinced them to keep the price,” he recalled.

Image source: Ford Motor Co.

Ford apparently believes that customer concern about battery pack longevity remains a potential obstacle to purchase, so the company will apply an 8-year, 100,000-mile warranty to the Mach-E’s battery.

Ford made another key decision on its motor technology, selecting permanent magnet motors rather than induction motors for the Mach-E. Palmer described first encountering the astounding power of small permanent magnet motors in an electric radio control helicopter.

“You have a motor that is like one inch across that has a ridiculous amount of power for the size of it,” he said. The challenge is metering the power from such motors. “You have to carefully control it; that’s where the skill is. How smoothly you do that is the characteristic of the car.” The finesse that is possible depends on the number of coils built into the motor, as increased coil density provides more granular control of the motor’s movement.

Permanent magnet motors are also more efficient than induction motors, which is driving the industry to the same solution, Palmer said. “Others who started on induction are moving to permanent magnets.”


In school, systems engineering is taught as a top-down process, but in actual practice it involves bottom-up techniques. In the former, the desired system is broken down or partitioned into smaller subsystem parts in order for requirements, functions and architectures to be decomposed to a point where engineers can begin to build hardware, software, networks, etc.

Conversely, the bottom-up approach begins with the integration of lower level hardware, software, network and other components. These subsystems are tested and built-up until the original desired systems is created.  Almost all of the traditional engineering disciplines (like electronic, mechanical, software and network engineering) follow a subsystem or component bottom-up approach to design and test.

Most engineers and managers in the real world follow a middle-out or inside-out approach. As the name implies, the “middle-out” systems engineering method consists of concurrent bottom-up and top-down systems engineering activities. The bottom-up tasks are built on a detailed knowledge of component parts and subsystems.  The concurrent top-down activities will preserve the customer-focused, requirements-driven emphasis that keeps the system development in a functional domain.

One of the key benefits of the middle-out approach is the traceability afforded by combining the top-level requirements-function-synthesis process with the known requirements and functions from bottom-level implemented system elements. Both executive level and component/subsystem engineers are brought together in this activity to ensure the traceability of requirements. Critical members from both groups will then be involved in the design and integration decisions.

Image Source: Wiley – JB Systems

Several experts and practitioners agree – to varying degrees – that most real world systems engineering projects follow a middle-out approach.

“I agree that many projects “should” take middle-out approaches since so few projects today are creating new systems from complete scratch,” observed Cary Bryczek, Principle Solutions Architect for aerospace and defense for Jama Software. “Things like modernization efforts, developing product variants, and the Internet of Things are all requiring a consideration where the future environment itself is uncertain. But I also still see many projects in safety critical spaces – like defense and automotive – are taking traditional top down systems engineering approaches. I suspect a lot of this is driven by contract vehicles.”

Mark Sampson, product manager at Siemens, agrees that a majority of projects involve changes to existing products. However, he prefers the phrase inside-out over middle-out as the former focuses on understanding the impact of a change (e.g., add, remove, or update).

“Today that development process relies on knowledge, talking with experienced people, etc. rather than models to understand the impacts,” explains Samspon. “Of course it all gets much easier if you’ve designed your product for evolving changes by considering up front what the architecture of the product would be and where the possible areas of change are over time.

Regardless of the name, most systems engineers must meet both top-down, corporate objectives and bottom-up, product requirements. Fortunately, the growth of the Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) paradigm supports a middle-out approach. Models can be used in both the top-down, multiple domain architectural and requirements design as well as the bottom-up simulation and prototyping of preliminary system, subsystems and component evaluation and verification. Together, these models provide a platform that combines high-level system models with specific component and subsystem oriented executable models.

The middle-out approach is familiar to the electronics space. Consider the PCB design tool space where vendors are now being driven both from the top-down and also from the middle-out, notes Paul Dempsey, co-founder of the Tech Design Forum. “For example, Altium community beta members have explicitly reached out to the maker community for many middle-out activates.”

John Blyler is a Design News senior editor, covering the electronics and advanced manufacturing spaces. With a BS in Engineering Physics and an MS in Electrical Engineering, he has years of hardware-software-network systems experience as an editor and engineer within the advanced manufacturing, IoT and semiconductor industries. John has co-authored books related to system engineering and electronics for IEEE, Wiley, and Elsevier


Take a look at the evolution of the original Land Rover into the Defender over the decades.

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    As we welcome the new 2020 Land Rover Defender, it seems like a good time to look back at the original rough-and-ready models, which ran from 1948 to 2016. Land Rover marked the end of production with a ceremony at its Solihull plant that gathered the classics back to their birthplace, providing a trove of modern photos of classic Land Rovers to enjoy.

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    1948 Land Rover 90

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    1956 Land Rover Series I Fire Tender

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    1967 Land Rover Series IIA 88-inch prototype

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    1979 Land Rover Series III 109-inch Station Wagon

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    Classic Land Rover reunion

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    Classic Land Rover parade

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    1994 Defender 90 convertible

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    2001 Land Rover Defender, Tomb Raider movie vehicle

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    2012 Land Rover Defender

  • 2013 Land Rover Defender

  •  Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    2015 Land Rover Defender 110 official Rugby World Cup vehicle

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    Final 2016 Land Rover Defender

Dan Carney is a Design News senior editor, covering automotive technology, engineering and design, especially emerging electric vehicle and autonomous technologies.

(Image source: Adobe Stock)

We’ve picked our favorite AI-related stories from 2019.

The 10 greatest issues AI needs to face

While we celebrate the positive impacts of artificial intelligence let’s not forget there’s also a lot to be concerned about.

The Apple Card Is the Most High-Profile Case of AI Bias Yet

Apple Card users have alleged that its credit decision algorithm discriminates against women.

How AI at the Edge Is Defining Next-Generation Hardware Platforms

Moving AI from the cloud to the edge was a big trend in 2019. Chris Cheng, distinguished technologist on the hardware machine learning team at Hewlett Packard, takes a look at some of the latest research being done on AI inference at the edge.

(Image source: OpenAI)

OpenAI’s Robot Hand Taught Itself How to Solve a Rubik’s Cube

Rubik’s Cube Solving Robot Hand Sparks Debate in the AI Community

Using novel neural networks, OpenAI enabled a robotic hand is able to learn how to solve a Rubik’s Cube on its own. Concerns regarding OpenAI’s robot hand that can solve a Rubik’s Cube have created a debate among engineers and AI experts on social media.

What’s the State of Emotional AI?

Artificial intelligence that can recognize human emotions – emotional AI – has been gaining momentum. But something’s missing. How long until we’ll be seeing it in our devices and cars?

(Image source: TuSimple)

UPS Has Invested in Autonomous Trucks After Ongoing Tests

TuSimple’s Autonomous Trucks Are Being Tested by the USPS

In 2019, TuSimple entered into partnerships with UPS and the US Postal Service to test self-driving trucks for hauling mail freight.

The New Raspberry Pi 4 Is All About AI and Embedded IoT

The Raspberry Pi has grown from a hobbyist machine to an IoT developer platform capable of even handling machine learning applications. Here’s our hands-on look.

A Look at the US/China Battle for AI Leadership

The US and China are waging a behind-the-scenes war over who will emerge as the global powerhouse of artificial intelligence. Where do each country’s strengths and weaknesses lie?

There’s a Diversity Crisis in the AI Industry

A lack of racial and gender diversity at the companies creating AI ties closely with issues of bias and racial discrimination in artificial intelligence algorithms, according to a new NYU study.

(Image source: Pixabay)

Can Trump’s New Initiative Make American AI Great Again?

A look at President Trump’s executive order aimed at accelerating America’s lead in artificial intelligence.

AI Could Make Quantum Computers a Reality

New research is examining the use of artificial intelligence to handle the calculations necessary for quantum computers to function.

Image source: Hagerty magazine

The 10 hottest collector cars for 2020

Classic car insurance magazine Hagerty compiled the 2020 Bull Market List based on cars with the fastest-rising values.

Image source: Tesla

10 hottest rides from the 2019 LA Auto Show

New off-roaders star in this year’s LA Auto Show.

Image source: Ford Motor Co.

10 Mutant Mustangs: Maybe the ‘rules’ are really more like ‘guidelines’

Ford has stretched the definition of what Mustang means from the very beginning.

Image source: General Motors Co.

10 Videos that Break Down the Engineering of the 2020 Chevrolet Corvette

Chevy breaks down the new ‘Vette’s tech in a series of videos about its significant technical features.

Image source: Lexus

8 Great Concept Cars From the Tokyo Motor Show

The Tokyo show always includes adventuresome technology demonstrations.

Image source: Molex

The 4 Major Challenges of Wireless In-Vehicle Charging

Wireless charging is the best way for automakers to meet consumer demand for better charging performance in their vehicles. But there significant challenges to getting this innovation to market.

Image source: public domain

8 of the Greatest Fathers in Engineering History

The apple doesn’t always fall far from the tree. We’re taking a look at eight renowned engineers and their children who followed in (and sometimes surpassed) their footsteps. 

Image source: General Motors Co.

10 Green Principles For EV Sustainability

Recently published guidelines could help ensure that new battery technologies are sustainable and environmentally sound.

Image source: Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.

A Look at 10 Hot New Internal Combustion Engines

The internal combustion engine marches on, with innovations ranging from variable compression ratios to cam-less valve trains. 

Image source: Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S.

9 red hot sports cars you can’t afford

Lamborghini, Bugatti, Ferrari and others rolled out their latest and greatest supercars at the Geneva Motor Show

Image source: American Honda

The Ten Most Reliable Vehicles for 2019

A philosophy that stresses evolution over revolution lead one automaker to dominate the reliability ratings

Image source: Tesla

The Ten Most Unreliable Vehicles for 2019

Cadillac, Tesla, and Jaguar prove that luxury doesn’t necessarily translate to reliability

(Image source: Jaguar Land Rover)

Since its debut at the Amsterdam Motor Show in 1948, the utilitarian Land Rover has been synonymous with can-do off-road capability in the furthest reaches of the globe. How many documentaries on African wildlife would have ever been made without the participation of Land Rover?

The ubiquitous Land Rover gained the Defender moniker in 1991. The idea was to distinguish the traditional model from the then-new Discovery. But all along, it has been available in 90-inch short wheelbase two-door and 110-inch long wheelbase four-door variants, and they are identified by those numbers.

The previous Land Rover Defender 90 and 110 went on hiatus in late 2016 and it is returning now in rejuvenated contemporary form for 2020. While Mercedes chose to leave the outer appearance of its G-Class SUVs largely unchanged when it redesigned that vehicle, Land Rover chose to look forward rather than back, with styling that honors the original Defender without mimicking it.

While styling may seem superficial, plenty of tough engineering work went into producing a suitably upright, boxy design that slips through the air with minimal blunt force trauma. By carefully finessing the new Defender’s surfaces and using accessories as aerodynamic aids, the Land Rover aerodynamic team was able to whittle the Defender’s coefficient of drag down to 0.38, reported chief engineer Mark Wilson. That’s the same as Land Rover’s sleek-looking Range Rover Sport model.

The Defender’s traditionally abbreviated front and rear overhangs remain, ensuring good approach (38 degrees) and departure (40 degrees) angles for traversing steep obstacles. At the same time, however, take note of details like the circular-square openings in the front bumper fascia, which are optimized for airflow. “They are not some random size,” Wilson pointed out. “They’ve been engineered.”

(Image source: Jaguar Land Rover)

Air ducts through the fascia’s intake vents to jet out ahead of the front tires in the wheelwells, creating an air curtain that steers airflow away from the drag-intensive spinning tires. Speaking of tires, take a look at the spare tire mounted on the rear of the Defender. It is carefully positioned as an aerodynamic aid, to optimize the vehicle’s wake, according to Wilson.

Land Rover achieved the Defender’s remarkable aerodynamic performance by “tweaking ever single surface around the car,” Wilson said. “The engineers all pulled together and they’ve really gone after it.” 


Classic car insurance magazine Hagerty compiled the 2020 Bull Market List based on cars with the fastest-rising values.

  • Image source: Dean Smith, courtesy of Hagerty

    Hagerty magazine’s annual roundup of the hottest collector cars of the year looks at which cars have the fastest-rising values to identify emerging interest in previously overlooked models.

    Past years have pointed to the rise of interest in the classic Ford Bronco and the square body Chevrolet pickups of the ‘70s and early ‘80s. This year also includes some vintage SUVs, but also reflects the increasing interest by younger drivers in more modern cars, that were built in the 21st century.

    “The high school graduates of the late ’90s are now in their late thirties, and like every generation before them, they are investing in the cars of their youth,” said Hagerty editor in chief Larry Webster. 

    “The difference is they love imports, SUVs and cars that are more modern, affordable and fun to drive than conventional classics. It’s great to see them put their stamp on the hobby.”

  • Image source: Honda

    1997-2001 Acura Integra Type R 

    Hagerty’s take: “Although front drive is generally shunned, the Type R is widely considered the best-handling front-driver of all time. These are huge with millennials; half the quotes are from them. Type Rs are super rare and hard to find in good shape, and only newly added to our price guide because three years ago sales were scant.”

  • Image source: BMW

    1998-2002 BMW M Roadster 

    Hagerty’s take: “M Cars are way up, but the M roadster was overlooked for a long time because it looks so much like a regular Z3. They are getting their due now. The coupe has already popped, and the roadster values are up 22 percent on the later 315-hp cars and 31 percent (starting from a lower value) on the earlier 240-hp cars. Yet, good M roadsters are still half the price of good M coupes.”

  • Image source: Fiat-Chrysler Automobiles

    1996-2002 Dodge Viper GTS 

    Hagerty’s take: “Generation Xers and millennials are now 64 percent of the quotes on this car. Vipers have a reputation for being crude and uncompromising, but it’s a driver’s car and a visceral experience. The outlandish design has aged well, and attrition has worked in the Viper’s favor, meaning there aren’t a lot of good ones left. The early cars are now seen as desirable.”

  • Image source: Ferrari

    1999-2005 Ferrari 360 

    Hagerty’s take: “More of these cars are coming off normal insurance policies and onto Hagerty policies, with the number rising 211 percent in the past three years. They are gaining more of a reputation as an enthusiast or collectible car rather than a used exotic. The design has aged well and looks elegant in a way a lot of cars from that era don’t. The F1 transmissions were more common, but the gated shifter is what collectors want.”

  • Image source: Dean Smith, courtesy of Hagerty

    1971-’80 International Harvester Scout

    Hagerty’s take: “The vintage SUV craze has been going strong for eight years, but Scouts haven’t really popped yet like the FJ40s, Broncos, and Blazers. Most Scouts rotted away, but you’re starting to see them being restored. Gen X is 56 percent of the quotes, and if Gen X likes it, the values are going to go up.” 

  • Image source: Fiat-Chrysler Automobiles

    1984-2001 Jeep Cherokee

    Hagerty’s take: “A relative bargain compared with other legitimate SUVs of its era such as the FJ60 Land Cruiser. Everyone loves a Jeep, and this one has classically rugged good looks in a reasonably-sized package with tons of aftermarket support. Definitely appeals more to younger buyers than the same vintage Ford Explorer.”

  • Image source: Honda

    1988-’91 Honda CRX Si 

    Hagerty’s take: “These filled every high-school parking lot in the 1990s, and millennials are now 60 percent of the quotes. As one of the first front-wheel-drive sporting Japanese cars to get widespread recognition from enthusiasts, they are symbolic of the golden age of Honda, quick and go-kart-like and able to make any drive fun.”

  • Image source: Jaguar Land Rover

    1970-’95 Land Rover Range Rover

    Hagerty’s take: “This is a vehicle that appeals to millennials and Gen Xers, and they’re affordable because they’re known to be troublesome. The brand’s current success gets people to look back at the catalog of past vehicles, and this one established a lot of the design cues that guide Land Rover now and have been copied by other manufacturers.”

  • Image source: Porsche

    1970-’76 Porsche 914 

    Hagerty’s take: “Only the third car that Porsche ever designed is still the cheapest way to get into a vintage Porsche, and the 914 is being reevaluated for its great handling and affordability. The VW association that once tarnished it carries less of a knock now among younger buyers.”

  • Image source: Volkswagen

    1990-’95 Volkswagen Corrado 

    Hagerty’s take: “This car appeals equally to all age groups. With cars in excellent condition going for $6,500, it’s a cheaper entry point than a GTI of the same vintage but rarer. Our insurance quotes are up 25 percent on this car from 2018, so the interest is growing.”

Dan Carney is a Design News senior editor, covering automotive technology, engineering and design, especially emerging electric vehicle and autonomous technologies.


Here’s a look back at several cool hobbyist-level gadgets and a few super cool printed car projects.

The price of 3D printers has become reasonable enough to where hobbyist and businesses can own at least one machine. But once you’ve got it, what do you do with it? Engineers and techies will want to pursue DIY projects, repair machines and equipment, prototype their latest and greatest invention, or just have fun. All of these – but especially the latter – require a STL file and a 3D model. Here’s a very short list of places to get the coolest files for your 3D Printer (and many are free).


One of the biggest content repositories for 3D printer models on the internet is Thingiverse – the site offers close to 2 million STL files. The website is operated by MakerBot Industries, the creators of the Replicator series of 3D printers. The Thingiverse community mostly share their STL files for free in varying categories and complexity.

Need a few gift ideas for the holiday? Try this imaginative bottle opener and cap gun, uploaded by 3Deddy via Thingiverse. Aside from the printed parts, all you’ll need are a set of M3 bolts, an elastic rubber band and a penny or 10 cent eruo coin.

Image Source: 3Deddy, via Thingiverse
(Image source: General Motors Co.)

During most of the Corvette’s 67-year history, the nameplate has been a technology leader, even if its image in that regard has dimmed in recent decades as upgrades have become distinctly incremental.

The Corvette was heralded as a pioneer of technologies like composite bodywork, fuel injection, independent rear suspension, uni-directional tires, magnetically adjustable shock absorbers, twin-vortex supercharging, and aluminum frame design.

But when other super sports cars shifted to mid-engine design, starting with the Lamborghini Miura in 1966, Chevrolet’s plans to move the Corvette away from its original front engine layout have been repeatedly postponed until now. With the introduction of the eighth-generation “C8” Corvette Stingray, Chevrolet has finally fulfilled a move originally sought by the Corvette’s first chief engineer, Zora Arkus-Duntov.

This pits the Corvette, with its base price of $58,900 and a fully loaded as-tested price of $85,710, against pedigreed European rivals that cost a quarter-million dollars or more. Other competitors, such as the Acura NSX and Audi R8 only cost two or three times as much as the Corvette.

(Image source: General Motors Co.)

The motivation for relocating the engine behind the passenger compartment from under the hood was outlined by vehicle dynamics engineer Mike Hurley during our preview drive of a pre-production prototype on the roads outside Phoenix. 

The challenge for any vehicle driving forward through its rear wheels is providing the rear tires enough traction to both accelerate and turn effectively. When the engine’s mass is at the front of the car, it makes that job more difficult. And when that engine makes Corvette-grade power, well then, the car gets the challenging-to-drive-fast reputation that was tagged to the outgoing 2019 C7 Corvette.


Here are five trends that will be playing a key role in making cars safer and more efficient in the years to come.

  • Auto manufacturers have no option other than to realign their strategies in order to accommodate the looming revolution. Connected and electric cars are already on our roads. And the reality of fully-autonomous cars is coming closer and closer. Technology is helping auto companies to not only modernize their manufacturing processes but also to gather, manage, and analyze data. There’s also tons of data being generated by vehicles themselves All of this data will soon be the guiding factor for the automotive industry going forward.

    Here are five trends that will be playing a key role in making rides smoother, safer, and more efficient.

  • cybersecurity, automotive, MCU, networks, infotainment system

    1.) Vehicle VPNs and automotive cybersecurity

    We might not quite be there yet, but we are for sure on the verge of completely adopting autonomous vehicles. There has been a lot of talk surrounding self-driven vehicles, especially in regard to their safety and security. But the promise of connected and autonomous vehilces, and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communcation, also opens up new avenues for hackers to attack our cars.

    Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), which allow users to create secure and private connections across even public networks, have been around for some time now. They even allow you to appear online as if you’re in another country. They have been successfully deployed by consumers and businesses as well as in many high-risk cybersecurity situations, including safeguarding government data.

    With the rise of connected vehicles, it is now clear that car owners and manufacturers are going to be adopting VPNs and other cybersecurity solutions to protect their connected and autonomous cars from cybersecurity threats.

    (Image source: Microchip Technology)

  • 2.) Multimodal mobility

    New options like ridesharing, e-scooters, and electric bikes are transforming the way we think about transportation. Powerful tools have made Big Data collection and analysis seamless. When this data is harnessed under a public-private partnership, it starts to bring flexible, multimodal mobility solutions to life. We are already witnessing this partnership change the travel and tourism industry through white-label journey planning apps. Going forward, urban transportation will get more efficient, streamlined, and, in the long run, sustainable thanks to the adoption of multimodal mobility.

    (Image source: VeoRide)

  • 3.) AI that understands drivers and passengers

    Real-time Big Data analysis enables vehicles to recognize user preferences and automatically adjust their settings in order to make rides more comfortable and customized. Image recognition and processing technologies are also being integrated into cars as a way of training vehicles to identify their owners and users without the need of car keys. Systems like the one being developed by Affectiva can even recognize the emotional states of drivers and passengers. Deep learning is already helping fleet operators monitor drivers remotely. Farther into the future, AI and brain-to-vehicle technologies will also be instrumental in the actualization of driverless car technology.

    (Image source: Affectiva)

  • 4.) Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication

    Decision making in our roads is now based on real-time, accurate, and well-analyzed data thanks to the Internet of Things (IoT). V2X technology is bringing connected cars to our roads that will have the ability to capture and digest data from other vehicles and infrastructure, and then act upon that data in order to make our roads safer and more efficient. IoT connectivity will allow vehicles to assess the effectiveness of different features such as their braking and steering systems, perform predictive maintenance, and even update a their firmware and software without human intervention. Experts agree, V2X will get a big boost from the emergence of 5G as well.

    (Image source: NXP Semiconductors

  • 5.) More sensors on the road

    Cars are already packed with sensors, and more and more advanced sensors such as LiDAR and even thermal are implemented into autonomous cars. But more sensors will also be coming to our roads. Road scanning will be using sensors and cameras to scan the road ahead, identifying any possible imperfections or hitches. Smart vehicles will then use that information to adjust their routes accordingly.WaveSense, a Boston-based sensor company, for example, is using ground-penetrating radar to help vehicles map topography.

    (Image source: WaveSense)

As a child, Ariana Merrill loved to figure out how cars worked, and this has translated into her love and passion for mechanical engineering.  For the past 12 years, Ariana has been helping communities thrive through careful monitoring and innovation of electrical and mechanical systems. Ariana also is a tech enthusiast living in New Jersey. She is a computer science and engineering graduate, specialized in artificial intelligence. She loves to write on how AI is paving all industries.