The technology stack you choose is one of the factors that determine the success or failure of a potential web application. Development may be a hard and risky process because designing a software product is not only about having a convenient UI with an appealing UX but also ensuring that the product is stable, secure, and easy to maintain.

The technology stack you choose is one of the factors that determine the success or failure of a potential web application. Development may be a hard and risky process because designing a software product is not only about having a convenient UI with an appealing UX but also ensuring that the product is stable, secure, and easy to maintain. As a result, not only should your web product be accepted by the customers, but it should also allow you to scale and otherwise adjust it according to your business needs.

Simply put, a technology stack is a combination programming languages, frameworks, libraries, and other technologies that bring your product, in this particular case – your web application, to life. Regardless of the target platform, applications have two main sides: the frontend, which is the side your clients see, and the back end, which is the server side of an application which is hidden from users.

Frontend and Backend Development

Some of the common tools used in frontend design include HTML (HyperText Markup Language), CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), JavaScript, and TypeScript, among others. In addition to these programming tools, developers often choose specialized frameworks – which are prewritten packages with standardized code – to help create an impressive frontend.

In plain terms, the back end refers to all the logical components that ensure the work of the application, excluding the “visible” part that a user can interact with. According to the most common classification, the back end is made up of a web server, a back-end application deployed on that server, and a database.

Depending on your needs and available resources, you can write server apps in Python, Java, Ruby, C , Go, Erlang, or several other languages if they suit your needs better. Instead of developing the server app from scratch, you can choose from a number of web development frameworks and libraries, which makes development a cinch.

Databases store and organize information for easy access by the app users with the help of various APIs. Popular databases include MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, and Redis, among others.

With so many tools, programming languages, app development frameworks, and databases, it might be challenging to pick the right technology stack for web application development. Below are the factors you should consider:

The App You Are Developing

The app you need to develop will influence the technology you use. For instance, a medical app will need increased security, file sharing features, and video/audio streaming functionalities. As such, you will need to pick a heavy-duty programming language – one that easily handles high load.

Start by deciding upon the technology stack components based on the requirements of the app you are going to develop. Note that you can use a combination of different technologies, but you can choose web development frameworks, libraries, and modules only after selecting a programming language.

Project Size

Small projects are easy to plan and complete. As a project gets bigger, its complexity and need for a broader stack also increases. Before you start, classify your project as small, medium, or large. Small projects include portfolios, single-page apps, presentations, magazines, and other web solutions that you can implement with simple design tools such as Webflow or Readymag.

Medium-sized projects include online stores and online financial enterprises. These projects have more features and therefore require a larger combination of technologies to develop. In most cases, you will need specialized frameworks or libraries to complete these projects. You should also consider using third-party cloud services, for instance, Amazon Web Services, to aid the development process and your app’s functionality.

Large projects such as social networks and marketplaces require speed, scalability, and serviceability. A project this big will require a sophisticated assortment of tools, programming languages, and different technologies to build a multifunctional and convenient app with high performance, security and responsiveness. When choosing a technology stack for a complex project, consider the whole set of its requirements and find a balance between the number of included features and the app’s performance. Keep in mind that the customers won’t use your app if it takes forever to load or process a simple user query.

Launch Date

Do you need to launch your software as soon as possible? If so, consider a minimum viable product. Choose the proven solutions that cut the time it takes to develop an MVP of an app. For instance, you can pick Ruby on Rails framework that grants you access to multiple libraries in order to save you time. Another great tool is the RubyGems repository which allows you access to a collection of ready-made features you might need for your app. If RubyGems doesn’t have the feature you need, you can always get one created by an expert on Ruby Community.

If all you need is adding functionality to your app, consider integration with third-party software. These ready-made solutions may be paid, so they raise the development costs but save you the time (and, as a consequence, some money) you’d otherwise spend creating the required functionality. Another method to reduce the development time and improve your app’s functionality and performance is the use of additional frameworks, libraries, and modules. These tools are specifically made to fit particular development purposes, and they extend the capabilities of the programming language you have chosen for the technology stack. This way, the well-selected addition of ad-hoc technologies is one of the key parts of planning a stack for web app development.


Even when you do not plan to grow your business rapidly, it is advisable to pick a tech stack that allows you to scale efficiently. Scaling can be vertical, where you add extra functionality enabling your software to handle new tasks, or horizontal, where you add processing units so that your app may handle a larger number of users simultaneously. Some tools with excellent scalability include Ruby on Rails, React, Node.js, and Golang.


All apps require high security, especially if they deal with personal data including lists of email addresses, passwords, real names and postal addresses of users. The security requirement gets much higher and becomes a primary concern if your software processes and stores such confidential data as personal health records, payment information including card numbers, or other data that may be used with malicious intent. Whether you are developing a health app, an online store, or a simple social app, your customers or any users of your app will need to know their data is protected. A tool such as Ruby on Rails provides Digital Subscriber Line, DSL, which helps you configure your app’s content security policy.

# When developing an app, ensure that:

# app interactions are carried out using an API;

# access to the API is limited by tokens;

# each access to the app has to be authorized;

# any access from the Internet should be handled by the API;

# backup is performed regularly;

# if developing a medical app, it is HIPAA compliant.

Save on Expenses

Some of the tools you use when developing an app might be expensive. To save on expenses, ensure that your technology stack specification is clear and easy to understand. If you choose to outsource the project, offer clear project specs to allow the developer to make precise estimates.

Again, whether you are developing your app or outsourcing it, create an MVP, and test it. Note all the errors that occur when testing the product and correct them during the development phase. Where possible, only choose ready-made solutions and frameworks. This will not only save you money but also reduce development time. During the web app development, consider cloud hosting, which is more convenient and less costly. You need to think the entire web app development process in advance, from idea to launching and running the app.


Despite the fact that the capabilities of hardware and software are rapidly evolving and, thus, providing better functionality and performance for the needs of program developers, there is still no single fit-for-all technology stack. Some of the stacks are already well-established, tested and have proven their effectiveness for specific purposes, while others are experimental, risky, or unbalanced, for example, providing high performance at the cost of reliability.

Different web app development projects require different technology stacks; that’s why the specifics of your future product should determine the choice and number of components in the respective tech stack. If you are not sure which technology stack best fits your intended application, the best possible


When it comes to website fonts, there are so many things to look into, and it can get real overwhelming real fast. That’s why it’s best to start from the very basics before going any further.

  • Should you go for Serif or Sans: this is one of the elementary font category classifications. Based on the Roman alphabet, Serif typefaces are characterized by a decorative stroke located at the end of the vertical and horizontal strokes of the letters.

Some of the most famous serif fonts include Times New Roman and Georgia. The Times New Roman font in particular falls under the category of classic web-safe fonts. Overall, you can’t go wrong with choosing default font types such as this one, as they are usually easy to read and have been around for a long time, so lots of internet users are used to them. Still, if you’d rather try a bolder approach, then we recommend checking out fonts such as Noe Display, Freight Text or the Portrait collection. Of course, there are always Google’s serif typefaces that you can use for free, such as Playfair Display, Cormorant Garamond, or Crimson Text, to name a few.

Sans typefaces have no serifs on the letters (the word “sans” stands for “without” in French), and they are known for having a more modern and clean design compared to their serif counterparts. Helvetica, Tahoma, Verdana, Futura, and Arial are all examples of widely used sans serif fonts. As for free fonts, we suggest trying out the following for the Google Fonts free font library: Roboto, Source Sans Pro, Poppins, Heebo, or Montserrat.

What type you will choose largely depends on your target audience and the mood that you want to evoke with your font design. Generally, serif typefaces are used with the intention to bring forward a more formal and elegant tone. Though they can also be used to give an alternative look to your web page, and can often be found in magazines and within the fashion industry.

Sans fonts, on the other hand, most often symbolize minimalism, simplicity and straightforwardness. However, one of the great characteristics of sans serif fonts is that they are highly flexible. For example, if paired with an old style typeface, a sans serif can take on its qualities, in turn giving off a more traditional vibe.

  • Kerning, leading and tracking: these three design elements can be vital when figuring out the look of your typeface. These methods have the purpose of modifying the space between letters in order to get a visually pleasing and easily readable font. Kerning stands for the space between two letters, leading represents the space between lines of text, and tracking (or letter-spacing) is the spacing between groups of letters.

  • Contrast: in typographic web design, contrast is used to emphasize different chunks of text in a multitude of ways, all with the purpose of making the important parts stand out more. Different contrast types include size, weight (making certain parts of the text appear bold), color, form (for example, capital or lowercase letters) and structure (different forms mixed with different typefaces).

  • Alignment: figuring out how the text will be placed on the page is also an element that can contribute greatly to your font design. You can align your text to the left, right, or center. In addition, you can choose whether you want the text to be ragged on the right or justified.

Generally speaking, the text aligned to the left is the easiest to read.  Fully justified text is considered more formal as it lines up evenly on both sides of the margin, while ragged text has a reputation of being more informal and friendly. You can set up your alignment depending on your audience type, their expectations, and whether you have to think about the space limitations or not. In case you have to make full use of the writing space, then, by all means, go for the justified alignment. And if you want your perfectly aligned text to appear less dull, you can always divide different parts of the text by inserting some visuals or a subheading in between. If you do this, make sure to wrap your text around the images to give your page a cleaner and organized look.

When aligning your text, you should also pay attention to Line Length (the distance between the left and right side of the text block). The most effective way of measuring line length is by average characters per line. The optimal line length is from 45 to 80 characters, including spaces.