Summary: Animation in UX must be unobtrusive, brief, and subtle. Use it for feedback, state-change and navigation metaphors, and to enhance signifiers.


In UX, motion and animation can be helpful and communicative, if used with restraint. Motion is most often appropriate as a form of subtle feedback for microinteractions, rather than to induce delight or entertain users. In this article, we explore the purposes of useful, unobtrusive feedback animation. In a second (forthcoming) article, we will discuss the details in timing and movement to make these animations appear smooth and natural.

The big advantage (and also drawback) of UI motion is that it attracts user attention. Our peripheral vision (specifically, through the rod-shaped photoreceptors in the human retina) is responsible for detecting motion.  Evolutionarily, the fact that we can detect a movement outside the center of our field of vision is, of course, an advantage: we can discern danger and protect ourselves. But that means that we are sensitive and prone to be distracted by any type of motion (meaningful or not). That’s why motion in user interfaces can easily become annoying: it’s hard to stop attending to it, and, if irrelevant to the task at hand, it can substantially degrade the user experience (as any web user who has encountered a moving advertisement can attest).

Although animations can be useful and can build user expectations about the UI, they should be used with a light touch — primarily as a tool for providing users with easily noticeable, smooth feedback.

Purpose of UI Animations

When animation is used in a subtle way, it can help users build mental models about how the system works and how they can interact with it.  Animations are less critical for user experience when they are simply time-filling visual stimulations during moments of transition (in fact, it’s these down-time animations that often frustrate participants in usability testing).  Instead of using animations to provide surface-level delight (that quickly sours), animations can be leveraged for usability: as clues about what is currently happening with the system, as signifiers for how UI elements will behave, and as easily understandable spatial metaphors for the user’s location in the information space.

Motion for Feedback

Animations are often helpful as a form of noticeable feedback that an action has been recognized by the system.  A ubiquitous example is the animation of a navigation menu sliding over the page when a hamburger icon is tapped.  Because our visual systems are so attuned to motion, a short animation can ensure that users see the feedback.

American Museum of Natural History: When clicking the Exhibitions menu icon in the middle of the page, a menu panel slides over from the left side on top of the page’s content, rather than appearing suddenly like a new page.
Epicurious for iPhone: A shopping-list feature shows a subtle animated feedback when the user adds a new item to the list: upon hitting the Done button on the keyboard, the word that was just typed (Coffee, in this case) instantly becomes light gray, and then quickly changes to black to show that it has been accepted. At the same time, the input field both fades in and slides down below, signaling that it is waiting for new input.

Sometimes, static visual feedback is ignored due to change blindness. For example, people may not notice the shopping-cart–badge update after clicking the Add to cart button in the Cuisinart example below. An animation increases the chance of noticing that feedback. (Another alternative would be to make the static feedback more prominent — e.g., through a dialog box or using a bigger badge. Both solutions would likely be more intrusive than a simple animation.)

An ecommerce product page that features no animated feedback when adding an item to the cart After the user clicks Add to cart, the cart badge simply updates, with no animation. Because the badge is small and far away from the Add to cart button (which is likely where the user is looking), it’s easy to miss this change. The result could be that the user adds the same product to the cart multiple times.

And animations can also be used as a form of feedback before the user commits to an action, such as previewing the new location of an item when using drag-and-drop to reorder a list.

Airtable: When drag-and-drop is used to reorder columns in a table, a subtle animation gives a preview of the new order before the user lets go and commits to the action.

Motion to Communicate State Change

Motion can be used to indicate that the interface switched to a different state — for example, because of a mode change. Modes are often a difficult concept to communicate to users, but animation can help in two ways: (1) by making the mode change noticeable; and (2) by providing a conceptual metaphor of the mode transition. For example, morphing a pencil icon into a disk after it was clicked on signals the transition from Edit to Save mode more clearly than swapping one icon out for the other instantly.

Material Design: A pencil icon that transforms into a icon helps to communicate the difference between the Edit mode and the Add new mode.

In addition to showing a transition between modes or views of data, animations are also helpful for communicating state changes that are not triggered by users’ actions. For example, loading indicators show that the system is not yet ready to accept input.  One form of this is a “skeleton screen” (a placeholder UI that looks like a wireframe of the loading page, with no content) that is animated by a light glare moving across it.  

Hipmunk: While loading flight-search results, Hipmunk offers several animated cues. First, there is an animated chipmunk pretending to fly. (While cute, the chipmunk is not essential for feedback, but is helpful to establish the brand tone.) However, at the same time, other, more-communicative animations occur: the number of flight results climbs steadily from 0 to 754, indicating that the system is performing multiple federated searches concurrently. Also, a placeholder shows where content will appear as flight results load.  A progress bar, along with two animated ellipses, indicates that results are still loading.  Finally, as new results are loaded and the relevance order changes, a subtle animation shows new results appearing within the list and is meant to communicate that the order of the search results is changing dynamically.  However, the number of simultaneous animations is overwhelming: the power of any of these animations to pull the user’s attention is diminished by competition from all the others.

Motion for Spatial Metaphors and Navigation

The structure of a complex information space is often challenging to communicate to users without taxing their cognitive resources or taking up too much screen space. Scanning through navigation menus, tree diagrams, or even breadcrumbs to figure out where one is in the information hierarchy is a complex type of cognitive work. While animation alone is not a suitable substitute for visible navigation with clear, unbranded labels, it can signal to users the direction in which they are moving within a process or hierarchy; this supplemental cue can make navigation through a complex IA more intuitive and understandable.

Zooming animations can help users understand the direction of their journey into a hierarchical information space without looking at a tree diagram. Zooming out shows less detail, but more objects, thus suggesting that the user travels up into the hierarchy, whereas zooming in shows more detail, but fewer objects, creating the impression of going deeper into the hierarchy.

iOS Photos uses a zoom metaphor to show the user’s location in the information space (in this case, represented by my endless library of photos of my dog, Daphne). Going between Years, Months, and Days has a subtle zoom-in or zoom-out animation that helps users understand whether they are going up or down in the hierarchy of photos. This approach helps keep the user’s attention on content (cute dog photos), and not on the navigation chrome.

Likewise, a slide-over animation helps to establish that a user is moving forward or backward within a process such as checkout.

Amtrak shows a subtle slide-over animation to indicate that the user is moving forward through the process of booking a train.

Animations can also prevent disorientation and telling people if they are on the same page or have moved on — particularly on mobile, where context can be lost due to the small screen size.  Accordions, anchor links, and menu overlays can be disorienting or confusing if the change appears instantaneously; since a menu overlay fills the entire screen, the relationship between the overlay and the underlying page (e.g., “is this content a new page, or is it something else?”) is hard to understand without an animated cue. (Why does it matter if users know where they are? If they think they are on a new page, they are often tempted to use the Back button to navigate to the previous view; unfortunately, in the case of overlays or accordions, that action will take them away from the page instead of simply closing the element.)

WebMD: When opening an accordion on the page, the associated content immediately shows up at the top of the screen (with no animation). The user may think that the new content is on a brand new page. A scrolling animation (showing how the page is moved so that the accordion is at the top of the screen), followed by a moving expansion could help the user to understand that this is not a completely new page, but an accordion within the page’s content.

MetMuseum: Anchor links are often confusing or disorienting for users, but in this case, the anchor links use a smooth scrolling animation to show (1) that the content is all contained on a single page and  (2) where it is on that page.

Motion as a Signifier

Animations help users understand how to interact with UI elements. The direction (or other attributes) of the motion signifies the type of acceptable actions. For example, a card that expands from the bottom of the screen towards the top signals to the user that it can be closed by pulling down. A new card that comes from the right of the screen signals that it can be closed by swiping it to the right.

Apple Music for iPhone: the Now Playing card animates up into place in a manner that helps the user understand that this view can be dismissed by pulling down, rather than swiping left or right on the edge.

Car2Go for iPhone: A short bounce animation is a signifier that swiping across the list item reveals options.

Attention Grabbing and Attention Hijacking

Because the human visual system is very sensitive to motion (particularly, to motion that appears to have animacy), animation can be used to grab users’ attention, for better or worse. On the one hand, it can make a subtle signifier obvious, but on the other hand, gratuitous animations distract and annoy the user. Further, using animation to hijack the users’ attention or create a fear of loss is a dark pattern: an unethical application of user-experience principles and cognitive psychology to get users to do something they ordinarily wouldn’t.

Benign: Refinery29 embeds a poll in the middle of a story about social media’s mental health effects and shows a radiating halo on the slider’s knob to reinforce the signifier and catch the user’s attention. This limited use of animation is a relatively benign (though mostly unhelpful) way of catching the user’s attention. Were animations widespread throughout the site, this animation would be a distracting usability problem.

Distracting: The moving squiggle on Outline’s content pages adds no benefit, but needlessly draws the attention of the user away from the content.

Dark pattern: A flashing countdown clock on indicates that a sale is about to end (by a puzzling coincidence, in just under an hour for every single product on the site, no matter when you visit). The clock activates the powerful loss-aversion instinct in users, and the flashing (with a subtle enlarging of the digits as they flash) is very difficult to avoid attending to.

In summary, when UI animations are subtle, unobtrusive, and brief, they can improve the user experience and can communicate feedback and state changes, prevent disorientation, and strengthen signifiers. But they should not be overused, as they can easily become overwhelming and distract users.


Head, V. (2016) Designing Interface Animation. Rosenfeld Media. 

Saffer, D. (2014). Microinteractions. O’Reilly Media.

Pratt, J., Radulescu, P., Guo, R.M., & Abrams, R.A. (2010). It’s Alive! Animate motion captures visual attention. Psychological Science, 21, 1724–1730



From our sponsor: Design every part of your website with the Divi Theme Builder.

Making animations that “feel right” can be tricky.

When I’m stuck, I find Disney’s 12 principles of animation useful. They’re from the book ‘The Illusion of Life’ and although the book was written about hand-drawn character animation, a lot of the principles are relevant for animation on the web.

The 7th principle of animation is about arcs:

Most natural action tends to follow an arched trajectory, and animation should adhere to this principle by following implied “arcs” for greater realism.

In other words, animating along a curved path can make movement feel more realistic.

Straight lines are what browsers do best though. When we animate an element from one place to another using a translation the browser doesn’t take realism into account. It’ll always take the fastest and most efficient route.

This is where motion paths can come in handy. Motion paths give us the ability to move an element along a predefined path. They’re great for creating trajectories to animate along.

Use the toggle to see the paths.

See the Pen Alien Abduction- toggle by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

As well as being useful, they’re quite a lot of fun to play around with.

See the Pen Loop by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

So, how do you animate along a motion path?

I use GreenSock (GSAP) for most of my SVG animation and I made these demos using the newly released GSAP 3 and their MotionPathPlugin. So, if you want to skip to that bit, go ahead!

Otherwise let’s take a little journey through the past, present and future of motion path animation.

(Did someone say CSS motion paths?)

First, a little setup tip.

Make sure to keep the path and element you’re animating in the same SVG and co-ordinate space, otherwise things get a bit messy.



If you google “SVG motion path animation”, you’re going to get a lot of hits talking about SMIL.

SMIL was the original proposed method for SVG animation. It included the ability to animate along a path using the element.

It’s nice and declarative and currently the browser support is surprisingly good, covering all modern browsers except Edge and Opera Mini.

But, and this is a big but, the future of SMIL is uncertain, and has been for a while.

It was deprecated by Chrome a few years back and although they’ve now suspended that deprecation, implementations still vary and there’s no clear path towards cross-browser support.

Although it’s fun to play around with, SMIL isn’t very future-proof, so I’m only going to touch on it.

In order to animate along a path with the animateMotion element, you reference the path you want to animate along using path="..." and define the element you want to animate using xlink:href="#...":

See the Pen loop SMIL by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

With SMIL effectively out of the picture, browser vendors are now focused on supporting modern alternatives like the CSS Motion Path Module.

CSS Motion Path Module

Attention: As of the time of writing, the examples in this section are experimental and best viewed in Chrome.

You can check out which features your browser supports in the demo below.

See the Pen Browser Support – CSS motion path module by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

If you’ve got all green smiley faces, you’re good to go. But you may have a sad face for offset-anchor. This is because this property is currently still experimental. It’s behind a flag in Chrome, meaning it’s not turned on by default.

You can choose to enable it by going to this URL in Chrome:


and enabling experimental web platform features.

This module is joint work by the SVG and CSS working groups, so unlike SMIL, we’ll be able to use CSS motion paths to animate both, HTML and SVG DOM elements. I love a CSS-only solution, so although it’s not ready to use in production (yet), this is pretty exciting stuff.

The motion path module consists of five properties:

  • offset (shorthand property for the following)
  • offset-path
  • offset-distance
  • offset-anchor
  • offset-rotate


offset-path defines the path that we can place our element on. There are a few proposed values but path() seems to be the only one supported right now.

.rocket {
	offset-path: path('M1345.7 2.6l2.4-4.4');

path() takes a path string with SVG coordinate syntax, which may look scary, but you don’t have to write this out. You can create a path in a graphics editing program and copy and paste it in.


offset-distance specifies the position along an offset-path for an element to be placed. This can be either in pixels or as a percentage of the length of the path.

See the Pen Rocket – CSS motion path – offset-distance by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default


By default the element’s top left corner will be aligned with the path, but we can change this with offset-anchor.

offset-anchor behaves a lot like transform-origin. In fact if set to auto, it’s given the same value as the element’s transform-origin, so we can optionally use transform-origin for the same results.

Like transform-origin it accepts a position with x and y values, either as a percentage or a keyword like bottom or left.

Have a play with the values:

See the Pen Rocket – CSS motion path – offset anchor by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default


offset-rotate defines the direction the element faces on the path.

By default it’s set to auto and will rotate with the path. You can pass in an optional second value in degrees in order to tweak the direction of this rotation.

See the Pen Rocket – CSS motion path – offset-rotate – auto deg by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

If you want your element to face the same direction throughout, and not rotate with the path, you can leave out auto and pass in a value in degrees.

See the Pen Rocket – CSS motion path – offset-rotate – deg by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

These properties were renamed from motion to offset since this spec was proposed. This is because alone, these properties just provide another way to set the position and rotation of absolutely positioned elements. But we can create motion by using them in conjunction with CSS animations and transitions.

.rocket {
  offset-path: path('M20.2...');
  offset-anchor: 50% 50%;
  offset-rotate: auto;
  /*   if offset anchor isn't supported we can use transform-origin instead */
  transform-origin: 50% 50%;
  animation: move 8s forwards linear;
  transform-box: fill-box;

@keyframes move {
  from {
    offset-distance: 0%;
  to {
    offset-distance: 100%;

See the Pen Rocket – CSS motion path by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

Attention: SVG transform-origin quirks.

In this demo, I’m using a relatively new CSS property, transform-box.

This is to avoid a browser quirk that’s caught me out a few times. When calculating transforms and transform-origin, some browsers use the element’s bounding box as the reference box and others use the SVG viewbox.

If you set the value to fill-box the objects bounding box is used as the reference box.

And if you set the value to view-box the nearest SVG viewbox is used as the reference box.

You can see what happens to the center of rotation when we change it here:

See the Pen Rocket – CSS motion path – transform-box by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

GreenSock Animation Platform (GSAP)

While we wait for the CSS solution to be more widely implemented we’re in a bit of a motion path limbo. Thankfully there’s some JavaScript animation libraries that are bridging this gap.

I usually use GreenSock for SVG animation for a few reasons.

There are some cross browser quirks with SVG, especially with how transforms are handled. The folks at GreenSock go above and beyond to handle these inconsistencies.

Animation can also be a bit fiddly, especially when it comes to fine-tuning timings and chaining different animations together. GreenSock gives you a lot of control and makes creating complex animations fun.

They also provide some plugins that are great for SVG animation like DrawSVG, MorphSVG and MotionPathPlugin.

They’re all free to experiment with on Codepen, but some of the plugins are behind a membership fee. MotionPathPlugin is one of the free ones, and part of the new GSAP 3 release.

MotionPathPlugin gives you the ability to turn an SVG path into a motion path, or specify your own path manually. You can then animate SVG or DOM elements along that path, even if those elements are in a completely different coordinate space.

Here’s a demo with the necessary libraries added to start you off.

In order to use a plugin we have to register it, like this:


Then we can start animating. This is what a tween using the simplified GSAP 3 syntax looks like:".rocket", {
	motionPath: ...
	duration: 5,

The name ‘tween’ comes from the world of hand-drawn animation, too.

Tweening is the process of generating intermediate frames between two images to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second image.

That’s pretty much what a GSAP tween does. You feed in the element you want to animate, the duration, and the properties you want to target and the tween will figure out the in-between states.

The motionPath attribute can be used shorthand, and passed a path:".rocket", {
	motionPath: "#path",
	duration: 5,

Or, if we want more control over the settings we can pass it an object of options:".rocket", {
	motionPath: {
		path: "#path",
		align: "#path",
		autoRotate: true,
	duration: 5,

See the Pen Rocket – GSAP motion path by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

Here are some of the properties we can control.


This defines the motion path we’re animating along, we can reference a path that exists in the document by using a selector,

motionPath: {
	path: "#path",

a string that contains SVG path data,

motionPath: {
	path: 'M125.7 655a9.4 9.4...',

an object containing an array of x and y co-ordinates to move between,

motionPath: {
	path: [{x: 100, y: 100}, {x: 300, y: 20}]

or a variable referring to one of these options:

const myPath = 'M125.7 655a9.4 9.4...'

motionPath: {
	path: myPath,


We can use this to align the element to the path, or other elements in the document by passing in a selector:

motionPath: {
	path: "#path",
	align: "#path"

We can also align the element to itself if we want the animation to start from the element’s current position.

motionPath: {
	path: "#path",
	align: "self"

In the next demo, the purple rocket is aligned to self and the green rocket is aligned to the path.

align: “self” is like moving the path to the element, rather than the element to the path.

See the Pen Rocket – GSAP motion path – align by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

By default, the element’s top left corner will be the center of rotation and alignment. In order to align the element accurately on the path you’ll need to set the element’s center of rotation, like this:

gsap.set(".rocket", { 
	xPercent: -50,    
	yPercent: -50,    
	transformOrigin: "50% 50%"


This is how we get our element to rotate along with the curvature of the path:

motionPath: {
	path: "#path",
	align: "#path"
	autoRotate: true,

We can also provide a number value. This will rotate along with the path, but maintain that angle relative to the path.

motionPath: {
	path: "#path",
	align: "#path"
	autoRotate: 90,

start & end

These properties let us define where on the path the motion should begin and end.

By default, it starts at 0 and ends at 1, but we can provide any decimal number:

motionPath: {
	path: "#path",
	align: "#path"
	autoRotate: true,
	start: 0.25,
	end: 0.75,

If you want the element to go backwards along the path, you can provide negative numbers.

See the Pen Rocket – GSAP motion path – align by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default


If your element is starting off at a different position in the document and you want it to align with the path you might notice a jump as it moves from its position to the path.

See the Pen Rocket – GSAP motion path – align by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

You can fix force it to render immediately upon instantiation by adding immediateRender:true to the tween.

// animate the rocket along the path".rocket", {
    motionPath: {
        path: "#path",
        align: "#path",
        autoRotate: true,
    duration: 5,
    ease: "power1.inOut",
    immediateRender: true,


Another super cool feature of the GSAP 3 release is the MotionPathHelper.

It enables you to edit paths directly in the browser! I found this really helpful, as I’m always going back and forth between the browser and my graphics editor.

Give it a go in the demo below. When you’re done, click “copy motion path” to copy the SVG path data to your clipboard. Paste the new path data into the d=”” attribute in the SVG code to update your path.

There are instructions on how to edit the path in the GSAP docs.

See the Pen Rocket – GSAP motion path – helper by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

GreenSock is a ton of fun to play around with!

There are a bunch of other features and plugins that when paired with motion path animation can be used to create really cool effects.

In this demo, DrawSVG is progressively showing the text path as some staggered elements animate along the path using MotionPathPlugin:

See the Pen Squiggle text animation by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes) on CodePen.default

If you’ve had fun with these examples and want to explore GreenSock some more, Christina Gorton has written The New Features of GSAP 3 providing a practical overview.

GreenSock also have a great getting started guide.

Happy animating!