The proportion for Golden Ratio is 1:1.618. It is a mathematical equation that has found its way into design practices as well. The golden ratio has been scientifically proven beautiful. The best example to understand the importance of the Golden Ratio can be traced back to one of the most famous paintings: the Mona Lisa.  The painting itself uses the golden ratio.

Some other names for Golden Ratio are The Golden Section, Golden Mean, or the German letter “phi”. It is a useful number that helps create beautiful designs. The way Golden Ratio differs from other design practices is that design generally is led by instinct and creativity. Whereas the Golden Ratio has a different approach. It uses mathematical approaches to transform your images, layouts, typography and many more design practices.

The Fibonacci sequence:

This sequence is the sum of two numbers before it. Greeks tossed this practice. It used to help them form a visual pattern to help with their design. After you’re done, turn the sequence into squares and put them side by side and you’ll create a spiral of rectangles. This is known as the Golden Spiral. What’s amazing is that though this is a mathematical equation, there are a lot of natural instances that show the presence of this concept in their structure as well. Natural calamities, flowers and even shells, everything has a hint of the golden ratio. A Fibonacci sequence would look like 1, 1,2,3,5,8,13, 21.

Golden Ratio in Graphic Design:

Golden Ratio adds structure to design, which otherwise has an expressive nature.  An easy hack of applying the golden ratio to any element is multiplying the size of the element by 1.618 for figuring out the size of another element or overlay the Golden Spiral for adjusting their placement.  The golden ratio can be used for typography, images and much more.

1.Using Golden Ratio for Typography:

Understanding the Golden Ratio in Design- Typography

Typography refers to the art or technique of arranging type for making the written language legible, readable and appealing when displayed. Adding hierarchy in your layout adds structure and flow to your design. You can use typography for wedding invitation or also for website layout. At first glance, it might not be possible to imagine any correlation between typography and mathematics. However, typography is a blend of letter forms and mathematical proportions.

Three factors are crucial to typography; font size, line width and line-height.  All these aspects need to be in proportion to each other.  By achieving proportion in these three elements, the content you want to put forth would be very appealing to your readers on websites, or even blogs. By tweaking the font size and the content width, you can get an understanding of what the font height should be.  A 70-80 CPL-Characters Per Line, is considered comfortable for reading. If the content is too lengthy, the readers would lose out on the natural flow and find it challenging to find the start of the next line.

Golden Ratio can also be of help to have a guide for typography sizes.  If you breakdown a three-line text by importance in three sections named A, B and C you’d be able to understand the golden ratio a whole lot better. Suppose C is the least important piece of information you have, and you use the size 10 px for its content. If you need to figure out what size of the text to use for more critical text B multiply the font size of C by 1.618.

2. Adding to the Image Structure:

Understanding the Golden Ratio in Design- Adding Image Structure

Photographers always have a guiding principle that they use when they click photographs. There are many guiding principles in photography that helps photographers better frame their picture.  One such guideline or rule is known as The Rule of Thirds. The rule of thirds essentially is dividing a composition into 9 equal parts, by dividing the frame with two equidistant vertical and horizontal lines. The points where these lines intersect are known as intersection points. The idea of using the rule of one third is that the subject should be placed on the intersection points in a way that the subject only takes up 1/3rd of the frame. This can also be done in post-editing using grid lines. Another such guideline is the Golden Ratio.

Golden Ratio works best when you are trying to create a perfect sense of harmony in your images. Now unlike the rule of thirds, using golden ratio when clicking could be a little trickier, especially when you’re new to the concept. Hence using the Golden Spiral in post-production is one of the best ways to go around it.  Overlay the spiral on top of your image. This would help you see which elements of the picture sit where and if they’re creating harmony together. It also allows you to identify focal points and where they need to be. It can also be used to understand which elements need to be moved for giving the design more energy.

3. For creating Logo Design:

Design- creating logo designs- logos

Logos are one of the most critical aspects of business identity. It helps new potential customers identify your brand, and old customers to retain your services and products through your logo. A brand logo helps create the first impression of the business’ values and relevance to its audience.  It is the first interaction anyone has with a brand as logos are more visual than texts. This is why it is very important to have a great logo that delivers what the brand stands for at its core in a single glance.

One good practice for creating spectacular logo designs is using the Golden Ratio. Using the Golden Ratio for designing logos help people instantly connect to the brand. An excellent example of this would be how many famous brands like Twitter, Apple, even Pepsi have been using it to design their logo.

You can also make use of the Fibonacci’s Sequence to create logos. Initially, start by creating a circular sequence using the Fibonacci’s Sequence and then rearrange them for forming a grid that would work as the basic framework for your logo design.

4. Golden Ratio and Architecture:

Using Golden Ratio- Architecture

Architecture refers to the art of creating designs for buildings and constructing them as well. Ancient Greek architecture has been using the Golden Ratio to create its beautiful monuments. These monuments always seem to have dimensional relationships between their width and height.  The entire building gives a sense of being in perfect proportion. Famous polymath Leonardo da Vinci himself has used the golden ratio to create some appealing compositions in his times. Even the most famous painting The Last Supper the characters are arranged in the lower two-thirds of the golden ratio. Also, the position of Jesus is perfectly placed by arranging golden rectangles throughout the canvas.

Taj Mahal is known to be one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It also used Golden Ratio for its design. The central building of the Taj Mahal was designed using the Golden Ratio. The rectangles helped create the basic outline for the exteriors of the building, which were all in the Golden Proportion.

Using the golden ratio in architecture helps bring a sense of balance and height to the structure.  Any building that seems well balanced naturally draws attention towards it. One of the most simple manners to reflect balance in a building is by using the Golden rectangle principles.  Another advantage of using the Golden Ratio is it allows you to create various shapes. You don’t need to stick to box-shaped or rectangular structures. The golden ratio uses those shapes as a base to guide your design. Still, you can easily incorporate various other shapes. You need to make a few changes to the golden rectangle to turn the building into any shape you desire.  A few derivatives that architects usually use are the Golden Triangle and a Logarithmic Spiral.

5. Designing and Creating  Layouts:

Designing and Creating Layouts- Desgin- Website Design- Website Layout

Layouts are the system arrangement of various elements on a page that usually refers to a specific placement on text, image and the style. It is essential to understand layouts because a wrongly worked layout would lead to inaccurate delivery of the message you want to convey. A good layout is essential to convey the message effectively. Not only this but a proper layout would help enhance the look of a particular object individually and also as a whole. Hence for successful layouts, the two criteria that need to be kept in mind are individual visual elements and their relationship.

There are many layout options available to designers.  One of them is the “Z” layout which takes inspiration from the letter “Z” itself. It generally shows the path that a reader sees the elements on a page or a design.  Another layout principle is the Golden Ratio. Golden Spiral works best when you have many elements that might differ from each other to be arranged in a single layout. It is seen that people are naturally drawn to the centre of the spiral when witnessing a golden spiral. This gives us the insight to place the most important element in the centre of the spiral

6. The presence of Golden Ratio in Human Face:

Human-Face-Golden Ratio

Front face: It is interesting how prevalent the golden ratio is. For understanding its relevance, it is important to realize that even our faces draw from the concept of the golden ratio. The head makes a golden rectangle, and our eyes become the central point. The nose and the mouth are both situated at the right sections of the distance of the chin and eyes.

Side Face: If you look at a human head from the side, it illustrates the Divine Proportion. The first golden section that is at the front of the head defines the ear opening position. Then successive golden sections define different parts of the face, like the neck, the back of the eye, and front of the eye guiding back to the nose and mouth.

The human face has several instances of the divine proportion.  The centre of the pupil is proportional to the bottom of the teeth and bottom of the chin. The outer and inner edge of the eye is proportionate to the centre of the nose. Our outer edge of lips complements the outer ridges of lips.  The width of the iris is proportional to the width of the iris.

Understanding the Golden Ratio can be very helpful for design practices. It is a mathematical approach to design that stands out from other design practices. It is prevalent in many aspects of life naturally as well. Since it is naturally available in so many instances, we tend to appreciate any design that uses its principles many times without even realizing it.  Just remember the constant ratio 1:1.618 and keep using it in different instances and places.

100 HD Blurred Backgrounds


One of the great things about paid search is the fact that you can track everything. If someone visits your store after seeing your billboard or TV spot, there’s no real way to trace that. 

However, if someone sees your paid search ad and visits your website, you know how they got to your site. You know which ad they saw, what copy they responded to and even what search term triggered your ad.

There’s so much data that it can be hard to figure out what it all means or what to do with it. Impression counts, clickthrough rates, cost-per-click…how do you sort through it all and use your paid search metrics to make intelligent decisions?

I mean, what’s the point of having all of that data if you don’t know what to do with it?

To make matters worse, a lot of this data can be hard to properly interpret, so even experienced online marketers often draw the wrong conclusions from their data or focus on the wrong metrics in their accounts. So, if you’ve ever stared at your paid search account and wondered, “What am I missing?”, this article is for you.

Are you focused on the right paid search metrics?

If you’re like most online marketers, you probably have several campaigns running, at least a dozen ads and over a hundred keywords to keep track of. And that’s if your account is on the small side.

Every one of those campaigns, ads, ad groups and keywords can give you a wealth of information about your audience and how effective your advertising is…but only if you know how to use your data.

These days, paid search is so competitive that it isn’t enough to simply set up Google Analytics and keep an eye on your cost-per-click. You need to know how to interpret every aspect of your paid search data and use it to optimize the performance of your account.

Now, while that might sound like a daunting task, most of the information in your paid search account can be broken down into three manageable pieces: information about your traffic, information about conversions and information about sales.

Let’s take a look at each of these three types of data and how you can use them to interpret what’s happening in your paid search account.

What sort of traffic are you getting?

When it comes to paid search advertising, most marketers tend to focus on traffic-related metrics like impressions, cost-per-click (CPC) or click-through rate (CTR). After all, the main reason why you run paid search campaigns is to drive more traffic to your website.

And, not surprisingly, paid search platforms like Google Ads and Bing Ads are full of traffic-related information: device segmentation data, keyword info, impression share insights, and more. For Google and Bing, this info is incredibly easy to track and supply and it’s what most of their users are interested in.

What you can learn from traffic data

While all of this traffic data is certainly handy, it’s only useful if you know what to do with it. That being said, your traffic data tells you a lot about how well your campaigns are working for your target audience.

If no one is clicking on your ads, there’s a good chance that your ad copy needs some work…or you’re targeting the wrong keywords. If your cost-per-click is too high, you might need to rethink your bidding strategy. If you’re not getting enough impression share on your best campaigns, you probably need to consider shifting your budget around.

For example, say you’re running paid search ads for a local attorney. On average, this client makes $3,200 from a new client and spends about $1,200 taking care of them.

In your most recent review of your campaigns, you review your traffic data and put the following report together:

From the data above, it’s easy to see which campaign is generating the best results. Campaign #3 produces more clicks at a lower cost-per-click than any of your other campaigns. In contrast, while you spent over twice as much on campaign #4, you got one-third of the clicks you got from campaign #3.

Clearly, you either need to shut down campaign #4 and put its budget into a better campaign like #3 or invest some time into figuring out why campaign #4 is performing so poorly.

However, before you make any decisions, we should probably talk about the other two types of data in your account. After all, your attorney friend doesn’t make money from clicks. To make money, she needs leads…and none of this data tells you whether or not all of those clicks are actually turning into leads.

Is your traffic converting?

So, with that in mind, let’s talk about conversion data. Because Google and Bing often can’t tell what a conversion is for your website, it takes some extra work to set up conversion tracking for your site. And, as a result, almost half of paid search advertisers don’t track their campaigns beyond traffic data.

But here’s the thing, without conversion data, you can’t answer the following two critical questions about your paid search campaigns.

1. Is my website (or landing page) a good fit for my traffic?

Paid search marketing is intent-based marketing. When someone searches for something on Google or Bing and clicks on your ad, they’re actively looking for a solution to a problem…a problem they think your business can help them with.

Their click is an act of faith in your business and the page they land on after clicking shows them whether or not their faith was justified. If your landing page or website meets their expectations, a decent percentage of people should convert. If not, they’ll leave.

So, if your conversion rate is high, then your destination page is a good fit for your traffic. However, if your conversion rate is low, it means that something is off. Your landing page or site isn’t working for your traffic, so they’re leaving to find something better.

If you find yourself in the latter situation, you may want to take a hard look at the page you’re sending traffic to. You may need to rethink your page and site experience to bring it into closer alignment with the expectations of your traffic.

2. Is your traffic a good fit for your landing page?

Of course, the opposite might be true, too. If your landing page seems like it should be converting traffic, but it isn’t, your ads may be sending the wrong people to your page.

If people click on your ads because they want a divorce attorney, but you’re a personal injury firm, will they convert? The wrong traffic never converts, regardless of how good your site is.

In this situation, it’s often a good idea to look at the search terms people are using to find your ads and the actual ad copy that you’re using. If it seems like you’re attracting clicks from the wrong people, you may need to rework your advertising strategy to target the right audience.

What you can learn from conversion data

Once you have set up conversion tracking, look beyond traffic data and see how your campaigns did in terms of conversions.

Although it doesn’t have the best conversion rate (CR), campaign #3 gets enough cheap clicks that it still has the best cost-per-lead. And, as before, campaign #4 is still a lost cause. Between a low conversion rate and high cost-per-click, it’s producing leads at almost ten times the cost of a lead from campaign #3.

With an 8 percent conversion rate, it doesn’t seem like either of these campaigns are targeting the wrong traffic, but they could probably both benefit from a little conversion rate optimization on their destination pages.

However, while this data paints a clearer picture, your attorney friend still doesn’t make money off of leads. She needs to close new clients. To get at that information, we need to look at our sales data.

Are you making sales?

As helpful as traffic and conversion data are, they still don’t tell you whether or not your campaigns are making money. And, if your campaigns aren’t making money, why are you running them?

Unfortunately, tracking your paid search campaigns clear through to sales data can be tricky. E-commerce is pretty straightforward, but once you get beyond that, it can be hard to connect your actual sales data to your campaign performance. You often need some sort of CRM like Salesforce and you have to figure out how to connect all of the dots.

But is it worth it? Absolutely. Let’s take a look at what the sales data for our hypothetical law firm’s campaigns shows.

All of sudden, campaign #4 just went from zero to hero. It might not have a great CPC or conversion rate, but its return-on-ad-spend (ROAS) is almost twice the ROAS of any other campaign.

So what does this actually tell us? Well, for one thing, it’s clear that campaign #4 appeals to people who are much more likely to buy than the people in any of the other campaigns. Campaign #3 might drive a lot more traffic, but that traffic is far less likely to sign up for our attorney friend’s services.

Does this mean that campaign #3 is bad? With a ROAS of 92 percent, it’s certainly losing money right now, but it has a lot going for it on the traffic and data front. Before you can pass judgement on it, you’ll need to dive into that data and see if there is any way to turn all of that potential into actual sales.

Maybe you need to change your ad messaging to filter out people who aren’t likely to actually become a client. Maybe you could tweak the landing page to better appeal to potential clients. Maybe your attorney friend just needs some coaching on how to respond to leads from this campaign.

In any case, without this sales data, it would have been easy to assume that campaign #4 was a complete loss and campaign #3 deserved more of your budget – when, in fact, the opposite was actually true. This is why sales data is so important. Traffic and conversion data teach you useful things about your campaigns, but only sales data answers the question, “Are my ads actually making money?”


Your paid search account is full of valuable information, but turning all of that data into actionable information can sometimes seem overwhelming. The trick is making sure that you have access to all of the data that you need to make educated decisions and then knowing what each type of data tells you.

Now that you know how to interpret your data, all you have to do is start digging through your paid search metrics. Opportunities to improve your account should quickly become apparent. Good luck!

This story first appeared on Search Engine Land. For more on search marketing and SEO, click here.


Opinions expressed in this article are those of the guest author and not necessarily Marketing Land. Staff authors are listed here.

About The Author

Jacob is passionate entrepreneur on a mission to grow businesses using PPC & CRO. As the Founder & CEO of Disruptive Advertising, Jacob has developed an award-winning and world-class organization that has now helped over 2,000 businesses grow their online revenue. Connect with him on Twitter.


If there’s one thing I’ve learned over the 15 years working on Google Search, it’s that people’s curiosity is endless. We see billions of searches every day, and 15 percent of those queries are ones we haven’t seen before–so we’ve built ways to return results for queries we can’t anticipate.

When people like you or I come to Search, we aren’t always quite sure about the best way to formulate a query. We might not know the right words to use, or how to spell something, because often times, we come to Search looking to learn–we don’t necessarily have the knowledge to begin with. 

At its core, Search is about understanding language. It’s our job to figure out what you’re searching for and surface helpful information from the web, no matter how you spell or combine the words in your query. While we’ve continued to improve our language understanding capabilities over the years, we sometimes still don’t quite get it right, particularly with complex or conversational queries. In fact, that’s one of the reasons why people often use “keyword-ese,” typing strings of words that they think we’ll understand, but aren’t actually how they’d naturally ask a question. 

With the latest advancements from our research team in the science of language understanding–made possible by machine learning–we’re making a significant improvement to how we understand queries, representing the biggest leap forward in the past five years, and one of the biggest leaps forward in the history of Search. 

Applying BERT models to Search

Last year, we introduced and open-sourced a neural network-based technique for natural language processing (NLP) pre-training called Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers, or as we call it–BERT, for short. This technology enables anyone to train their own state-of-the-art question answering system. 

This breakthrough was the result of Google research on transformers: models that process words in relation to all the other words in a sentence, rather than one-by-one in order. BERT models can therefore consider the full context of a word by looking at the words that come before and after it—particularly useful for understanding the intent behind search queries.

But it’s not just advancements in software that can make this possible: we needed new hardware too. Some of the models we can build with BERT are so complex that they push the limits of what we can do using traditional hardware, so for the first time we’re using the latest Cloud TPUs to serve search results and get you more relevant information quickly. 

Cracking your queries

So that’s a lot of technical details, but what does it all mean for you? Well, by applying BERT models to both ranking and featured snippets in Search, we’re able to do a much better job  helping you find useful information. In fact, when it comes to ranking results, BERT will help Search better understand one in 10 searches in the U.S. in English, and we’ll bring this to more languages and locales over time.

Particularly for longer, more conversational queries, or searches where prepositions like “for” and “to” matter a lot to the meaning, Search will be able to understand the context of the words in your query. You can search in a way that feels natural for you.

To launch these improvements, we did a lot of testing to ensure that the changes actually are more helpful. Here are some of the examples that showed up our evaluation process that demonstrate BERT’s ability to understand the intent behind your search.

Here’s a search for “2019 brazil traveler to usa need a visa.” The word “to” and its relationship to the other words in the query are particularly important to understanding the meaning. It’s about a Brazilian traveling to the U.S., and not the other way around. Previously, our algorithms wouldn’t understand the importance of this connection, and we returned results about U.S. citizens traveling to Brazil. With BERT, Search is able to grasp this nuance and know that the very common word “to” actually matters a lot here, and we can provide a much more relevant result for this query.


A reducer is a function that determines changes to an application’s state. It uses the action it receives to determine this change. We have tools, like Redux, that help manage an application’s state changes in a single store so that they behave consistently.

Why do we mention Redux when talking about reducers? Redux relies heavily on reducer functions that take the previous state and an action in order to execute the next state.

We’re going to focus squarely on reducers is in this post. Our goal is to get comfortable working with the reducer function so that we can see how it is used to update the state of an application — and ultimately understand the role they play in a state manager, like Redux.

What we mean by “state”

State changes are based on a user’s interaction, or even something like a network request. If the application’s state is managed by Redux, the changes happen inside a reducer function — this is the only place where state changes happen. The reducer function makes use of the initial state of the application and something called action, to determine what the new state will look like.

If we were in math class, we could say:

initial state   action = new state

In terms of an actual reducer function, that looks like this:

const contactReducer = (state = initialState, action) => {
  // Do something

Where do we get that initial state and action? Those are things we define.

The state parameter

The state parameter that gets passed to the reducer function has to be the current state of the application. In this case, we’re calling that our initialState because it will be the first (and current) state and nothing will precede it.

contactReducer(initialState, action)

Let’s say the initial state of our app is an empty list of contacts and our action is adding a new contact to the list.

const initialState = {
  contacts: []

That creates our initialState, which is equal to the state parameter we need for the reducer function.

The action parameter

An action is an object that contains two keys and their values. The state update that happens in the reducer is always dependent on the value of action.type. In this scenario, we are demonstrating what happens when the user tries to create a new contact. So, let’s define the action.type as NEW_CONTACT.

const action = {
  type: 'NEW_CONTACT',
  name: 'John Doe',
  location: 'Lagos Nigeria',
  email: '[email protected]'

There is typically a payload value that contains what the user is sending and would be used to update the state of the application. It is important to note that action.type is required, but action.payload is optional. Making use of payload brings a level of structure to how the action object looks like.

Updating state

The state is meant to be immutable, meaning it shouldn’t be changed directly. To create an updated state, we can make use of Object.assign or opt for the spread operator.


const contactReducer = (state, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case 'NEW_CONTACT':
    return Object.assign({}, state, {
      contacts: [
      return state

In the above example, we made use of the Object.assign() to make sure that we do not change the state value directly. Instead, it allows us to return a new object which is filled with the state that is passed to it and the payload sent by the user.

To make use of Object.assign(), it is important that the first argument is an empty object. Passing the state as the first argument will cause it to be mutated, which is what we’re trying to avoid in order to keep things consistent.

The spread operator

The alternative to object.assign() is to make use of the spread operator, like so:

const contactReducer = (state, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case 'NEW_CONTACT':
    return {
        ...state, contacts:
        [...state.contacts, action.payload]
      return state

This ensures that the incoming state stays intact as we append the new item to the bottom.

Working with a switch statement

Earlier, we noted that the update that happens depends on the value of action.type. The switch statement conditionally determines the kind of update we’re dealing with, based on the value of the action.type.

That means that a typical reducer will look like this:

const addContact = (state, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case 'NEW_CONTACT':
    return {
        ...state, contacts:
        [...state.contacts, action.payload]
    case 'UPDATE_CONTACT':
      return {
        // Handle contact update
    case 'DELETE_CONTACT':
      return {
        // Handle contact delete
      return {
        // Handle contact list
      return state

It’s important that we return state our default for when the value of action.type specified in the action object does not match what we have in the reducer — say, if for some unknown reason, the action looks like this:

const action = {
  type: 'UPDATE_USER_AGE',
  payload: {
    age: 19

Since we don’t have this kind of action type, we’ll want to return what we have in the state (the current state of the application) instead. All that means is we’re unsure of what the user is trying to achieve at the moment.

Putting everything together

Here’s a simple example of how I implemented the reducer function in React.

See the Pen

reducer example
by Kingsley Silas Chijioke (@kinsomicrote)

on CodePen.

You can see that I didn’t make use of Redux, but this is very much the same way Redux uses reducers to store and update state changes. The primary state update happens in the reducer function, and the value it returns sets the updated state of the application.

Want to give it a try? You can extend the reducer function to allow the user to update the age of a contact. I’d like to see what you come up with in the comment section!

Understanding the role that reducers play in Redux should give you a better understanding of what happens underneath the hood. If you are interested in reading more about using reducers in Redux, it’s worth checking out the official documentation.


Website owners encounter image files all the time. While you don’t have to be an image expert to edit and upload images to a website, you should familiarize yourself with common file formats such as JPEG. Or is it JPG?

In this article, I’ll present a JPG vs JPEG showdown so you understand the differences, as well as other details that will help you upload the best images possible to your website for the ultimate user experience.

Ready? Let’s get started!

What is JPEG?

As a website owner working with images, you have most likely seen the file format JPEG at some point during your editing and uploading adventures.

But did you know that the term JPEG is actually a reference for three different things?

Well, it is and we’re here to explain all of them:

1. JPEG Lossy Compression

When you upload images to your website, it’s important you take care not to negatively affect your site’s speed and performance by using large images that waste resources and take forever to load on the frontend of your site. In fact, all website owners should optimize their images in some way to reduce the file sizes of their images and preserve loading times and the user experience.

That’s where JPEG comes in handy. JPEG is a lossy compression method used to ensure the digital images being used are as small as possible and load quickly when someone wants to view them.

Here are some things to remember about lossy compression:

  • The file size of the image being compressed is permanently reduced by eliminating unnecessary (redundant) information from the image.
  • Image quality does suffer, though it’s often so slight the average site visitor can’t tell.
  • During the compression process, each pixel is compared to pixels surrounding it in a ratio ranging from 2:1 all the way to 100:1 (any pixels that are the same as the original are then deleted as they are deemed redundant).
  • JPEG lossy compression is usually used for photographs and complex still images.
  • When you compress an image using lossy compression, you determine the file size and image quality trade-off (e.g., smaller files = worse image quality).
  • The more editing and saving of a single image you do, the worse the quality of the image will be.

If you’re more experienced in editing images using lossy compression, there is a chance you can save the image quality while reducing its file size by working with RAW JPEG images, making edits, and saving the image one time.

If you don’t want to perform JPEG lossy compression on your site’s images, there’s always the alternative: lossless compression.

Lossless compression saves your images in an entirely different format (usually PNG). While the image quality is never sacrificed because no information is eliminated, know that with lossless compression the final file size of your image will always be bigger than with lossy compression. This may result in slower page loading times.

2. Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)

JPEG stands for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which is the name of the sub-committee that helped create the JPEG standard, as well as other still picture coding standards under the broader group called ISO.

The first JPEG standard was issued in 1992 by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). ISO is responsible for creating documents that “…provide requirements, specifications, guidelines or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes, and services are fit for their purpose.”

ISO sets the standards for many things, including digital images, in an effort to provide users and consumers with the highest quality products and services.

This international organization is a voluntary group of people with members from over 164 countries, making it the world’s largest developer of standards.

3. JPEG as a File Format

The last way the term JPEG is used is when referencing a file format name or a way to store and save digital images. This is probably the way you’re most used to seeing JPEG because this is one of the file format choices you have when you save an image after editing it.

jpg vs jpeg: jpeg file formatWhat is JPG?

What in the world is JPG in comparison to JPEG?

jpg vs jpeg: windows file extensionsJPG vs JPEG: Similarities Between the Two

Okay, so you know that .jpeg and .jpg files are the same exact thing. But just to drive that point home, and help you remember it long into the future, we’re going to look at the similarities of JPEG and JPG images.

1. Both Are Raster Images (Not Vector Images)

Computer images can be created as raster or vector images. And since JPEGs are raster images, so are JPGs.

Raster graphics are bitmaps of images. A bitmap is a grid of individual pixels that when combined create an entire image. In other words, raster images are a collection of countless tiny squares (or pixels) of color that are each coded in a specific hue or shade that when put together create a whole image that makes sense to look at.

Here’s more information about raster images to help you better understand:

  • Best used for non-lined images such as photographs, scanned artwork, or detailed graphics.
  • They have subtle hue or shade gradations and very undefined lines and shapes.
  • Due to their pixel-based nature, they suffer quality issues when blown up in size (they become jagged and expose individual pixels).
  • They are defined and displayed at one specific resolution, which is measured in dots per inch (dpi).
  • The higher the dpi, the better the resolution and visual appeal of the image.
  • Common raster file formats include: TIFF, JPEG, GIF, PCX and BMP files.
  • Raster images are the Web standard, meaning they are preferred for all images found on the internet.

Again, JPEGs and JPGs are not vector images.

Here’s some information about vector images so you can understand the difference:

  • Images are based on mathematical formulas that define geometric shapes like polygons, lines, curves, circles, and rectangles.
  • Perfect for straight-edged images like line art.
  • Because there are no color gradations, they work well for flat, uniformly colored images.
  • Include popular graphics such as logos, letterhead, and fonts.
  • Scale up or down without any quality degradation because they don’t rely on pixels to make the image whole.

2. Both Terms Mean the Same Thing

Remember when we discussed the term JPEG and how it stood for the Joint Photographic Experts Group? Well, you guessed it; both JPEG and JPG are abbreviations for that same ISO sub-committee.

3. Both Are Used for the Same Image Types

Because they are raster images, and not vectors, both .jpeg and .jpg file formats are best used for digital photography. Digital photographs have extensive color gradations that appear seamless when saved as raster JPEG/JPG images. This means your site visitors will always see a beautiful photograph if it’s saved as a .jpeg/.jpg and uploaded to your website.

4. Both Lose Some Quality When Saved

Since the .jpeg vs .jpg comparison is null (because they are the same exact thing), it makes sense that the compression method used on each file format — lossy compression— results in some loss of image quality as the file size of the image decreases.

In addition, this means that no matter what file extension you use (either .jpeg or .jpg), your image’s file size will be smaller than it was originally and result in faster loading times when uploaded onto your website and viewed by site visitors.

In the end, JPEGs and JPGs are the same thing and serve a few main purposes: to reduce the file size of images for better web viewing and give people an easy way to compress their images upon saving and name the file using a common file extension that is recognized by many.

So ask yourself: JPG vs JPEG, which is better? From there, don’t think too hard because the answer is neither. They are the same and whichever one you choose, is just a matter of preference.

JPG vs JPEG 2000

If you’ve ever found yourself searching for information about JPEGs and JPGs, you may have come across the term JPEG 2000 and wondered what in the world that was. After all, that’s not an option in most image editing software.

JPEG 2000 was an image encoding system created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group in 2000 that was designed to be better than the JPEG standard already in place. In fact, it was designed to implement lossless compression on images using advanced compression techniques on a discrete wavelength transformation.

It offered people a way to optimize their images and save them as JPEGs, without degrading the quality of the image.

Here are some of the most important features of JPEG 2000:

  • Advanced Compression Techniques: unlike traditional JPEGs, JPEG 2000 was able to perform both lossy and lossless compression (even on a single image file).
  • Progressive Decoding: enables site visitors to see a lower quality version of an image while the entire image is still downloading in the background. As more data is downloaded, the image quality improves for the viewer.
  • Higher Compression Ratios: when it comes to lossy compression, JPEG 2000 can compress an image from 20-200% more than JPEG, while maintaining the same image quality when compared to a JPEG image of the same size.

In addition, JPEG 2000:

  • Offers transparency preservation in images.
  • Can describe bi-level, grayscale, palette-color, and full-color image data.
  • Includes unlimited amounts of private or special-purpose information within metadata.
  • Can handle larger image sizes (greater than 64K x 64K pixels), with no tilting.
  • Ultra-low latency, which is especially useful for live TV content.
  • Scalability in both resolution and quality.

JPEG 2000 Limitations

Though JPEG 2000 has plenty of great features and seems to be the next best coding standard for digital images, there are reasons why it is still not a popular file format for most people:

  • No universal browser support (only supports Safari).
  • Incompatible with JPEG (must encode a new standard and support original JPEG).
  • Encoding JPEG 2000 files is CPU intensive, which can strain servers and slow things down.
  • Many websites and cameras are not ready to accept the format because it’s not universally accepted.

Because of its limitations, you’ll be hard-pressed to find the JPEG 2000 file format as an option while saving your digital images. And while it is arguably better than JPEG, until it is universally accepted, you’ll likely run into a bunch of compatibility issues making your job harder as a website owner than it needs to be.

Convert Image Files to JPG: Common Methods

There are plenty of ways to save your digital images as .jpg or .jpeg files. Let’s take a look at a few.

1. Windows Paint

If you have Windows, you can easily save any image as a .jpeg or .jpg using Windows Paint. Just upload your image to Windows Paint, go to File > Save as, choose the file destination, name your image, and select JPEG (*.jpg, *.jpeg, *.jpe, *.jfif) from the dropdown menu.

Windows Paint

export affinity designer

save as affinity designerFileZigZag is a free online file converter that’s simple to use. Just drag and drop your image file or upload it, choose the file type to convert the image into, enter an email address, and click Convert.

convert png to jpeg filezigzagXnConvert: perfect for advanced image editors that need lots of image file formats, the ability to bulk convert, and use Windows, Mac, or Linux.

  • Zamzar: a free online tool for those with large images (up to 50MB) that want the option to have the end result emailed or not.
  • Adapter: a simple image converter that supports batch images and converts instantly and works on both macOS and Windows.
  • Of course, these are just some of the available options you have if you want to convert images to JPG.

    JPG vs JPEG: What’s the difference? What about JPEG 2000? 😫 Get the answer (and more) in our extensive guide! 💪

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    JPG vs JPEG are the most common file extensions and compression methods for those wanting to store and save digital images. This is especially true for website owners that want to display visually appealing imagery and maintain an exceptional user experience.

    Luckily for you, no matter whether you prefer .jpeg or .jpg file types, you’re going to get the same outcome: beautiful images that load blazing fast for site visitors.